Nikolay Y. Milev

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The main purpose of this paper is to propose a practical approach for considering the soil – shallow foundation – superstructure interaction effect in nonlinear seismic analysis. Soil structure interaction is a complicated task dealing with various engineering problems. Taking into account the soil structure interaction extends beyond the numerical analysis, geotechnical investigation, or structural design fields. The artistry of considering the soil structure interaction effect lies in the balance between incorporating soil conditions and the superstructure into one collective model. Following this methodology alongside classical soil mechanics principles provides additional confidence to the structural engineering society in adopting a complete practical concept. The herein presented study introduces a fiber macroelement that represents the soil beneath shallow foundations. This allows for the direct utilization of the fiber macroelement in nonlinear pushover and dynamic analysis in commercial software, as well as its simple implementation in open software systems. The introduction of a procedure for forming the stiffness matrix of the element and a hysteresis soil model is also a key component. Special attention is devoted to obtaining the material backbone curve through experimental results and Eurocode 8’s procedures. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the implementation of a macroelement for considering the soil-structure interaction effect in nonlinear seismic analysis within commercial software. The primary aim is to provide structural designers with a streamlined approach for incorporating soil conditions into superstructure analysis. Numerical analysis results from an example building with a reinforced concrete structure in commercial software highlight the significance of not underestimating soil conditions. This work emphasizes that relying solely on fixed models in everyday structural design could lead to dangerous and unexpected consequences.


macromodel, fiber element, soil structure interaction, soil dynamics, liquefaction, backbone curve of soil, stiffness degradation, hysteresis model, Eurocode 8

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