Ana Vignjevic

DOI Number
First page
Last page


This paper examines the contemporary conceptual, perceptive and aesthetic potential of architecture to transform into landscape by means of materialization. Contrary to the former, modernistic principles of transparency, which eliminated the wall between the internal and external space on a literal, visual level, contemporary social and visual context create the prerequisites for establishing a new, ambivalent treatment of (de)materialization of the border between architecture and the landscape. Such transformation was interpreted in the paper as a consequence of the general change related to determination of architectural form, as well as change in the sphere of theory of perception. The ambivalent relation on the line subject-architecture-landscape relies in the paper on the phenomenology of perception of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Juhani Pallasmaa, whereas the architectural actualization of the given concept was analysed on the example of two different author’s views - Kengo Kuma and Jean Nouvel. The emphasis on architectural experience, rather than on the architectural image, places the material in the domain of the main framework of this concept, whether based on its tactile (Kuma) or imaginary value (Nouvel). Finally, in order to make  architectural materiality a part  of the natural environment, both design methods paradoxically shift the materials from their natural context (truth to materials), whereby, consequently, except for materiality, the perceptive experience of the place itself is relativized.


Full Text:



A. Berlant, Art and Engagement, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.

A. Botton, The Architecture of Happiness, New York: Vintage, 2006.

D. Cosgrove, Social formation and symbolic landscape, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.

D. Leatherbarrow and M. Mostafavi, Surface architecture, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2002.

D. Leatherbarrow, Architecture oriented otherwise, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009.

D. Vasilski, “Minimalism in architecture: Materials as an instrument of perception”, in Arhitektura i Urbanizam, iss.37, 2012, pp. 3-27, DOI: 10.5937/a-u37-3761

E. Diller and R. Scofidio, Blur: The Making of Nothing, NY: Harry N. Abrahms, 2002.

G. Bachelard, The Poetics of Space, Boston: Beacon Press, 1994.

G. Johnson, (ed.) The Merleau-Ponty Aesthetic Reader, Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1993.

G. Semper, The Four Elements of Architecture and Other Writings, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

J. Baudrillard and J. Nouvel, The singular object of Architecture, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002.

J. Pallasmaa, “An architecture of the seven sences”, in Question of Perception, special issue of Architecture and Urbanism, pp. 27-37, July 1994.

J. Pallasma, “Hapticity and time, Notes on fragile architecture”, in Architectural Review, Volume 1239, pp. 78/5-84/5, May 2000.

J. Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

J. Pallasmaa, “Space, place, atmosphere. Emotion and peripherical perception in architectural experience”, in Lebenswelt. Aesthetics and philosophy of experience. No.4, 2014, DOI:, accessed Apr 2015.

J. Ruskin, Modern Painters, Sunnyside, Kent: G. Allen, vol. III, 1888.

J. Salazar and M. Gausa, Single Family Housing, The Private Domain. Barcelona: Birkhauser, Actar, 2002.

K. Kuma, “Digital gardening”, in Alini Luigi with an essay by Kengo Kuma: Works and projects, Milano: Electa, 2005, pp. 223-224.

K. Kuma, Relativity of materials in Alini Luigi with an essay by Kengo Kuma: Works and projects, Milano: Electa, 2005a, p. 222.

K. Kuma, Anti-object: The Dissolution and Disintegration of Architecture, London: AA Publications, 2010.

Le Courbusier, When the Cathedrals Were White, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.

M. Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception, New York: Routledge, 2012.

M. Merleau-Ponty, Primacy of perception. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1964.

M. Merleau-Ponty, Sense and Non-sense. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1964a.

M. Steinmann, “The Pressence of Things”, in Steinmann M. and Wang. W. (ed.) Construction, Intention, Detail: Five Projects from Five Swiss Architects, Zurich: Artemis, 1994.

N. Hefele, “Landscape Perception and Inhabiting Vision: Practicing to see from the inside”, MA Arts and Ecology, 2010., accessed Apr 2011.

P. Eisenman, Written into the void Selected writings 1990-2004, New Haven: CT:Yale University Press, 2007.

T. Ingold, “The Temporality of the Landscape”, in World Archaeology, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1993, pp. 152-174, Stable URL:

T. Ingold, The perception of the environment: essays on livelihood, dwelling & skill. 4th ed., London: Routledge, 2000.

V. Milenkovic, “Architecture of imaginary landscape”, in Arhitektura i Urbanizam, iss.24-25, 2009, pp. 25-28.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 0354-4605 (Print)
ISSN 2406-0860 (Online)
COBISS.SR-ID 98807559