Milan S. Mirković

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Decision-making in construction bidding represents a complex process due to the present risk. Risk or uncertainty cannot be ignored and should be treated as a constituent of decision-making. The paper aims to emphasize the importance of probability theory by comparing insufficiently applicable methods in practical bidding. The triangular distribution and the PERT method belong to three-point estimate techniques, while payoff matrices represent a multi-criteria approach. Also, selected methods belong to quantitative techniques for risk cost analysis. Still, the risk costs determination of the unit costs and the total costs of bids is often based on an intuitive approach. Therefore, compared results of the triangular distribution, PERT method, and payoff matrix techniques (minimin, minimax, expected monetary value, and expected opportunity loss) indicate the significance of risk costs estimating in tendering. The analysis of the results showed some overlaps in risk costs values obtained by the PERT method and expected monetary value technique. Those are due to the specificity of the chosen practical example and cannot be adopted as a rule. This means that selected methods and techniques are very useful for all bid estimation. The paper proved the complexity of decision-making, where the primary goal is to award a contract.


bidding, risk, cost, unit cost, total cost, bid price

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