Maija Zakrizevska-Belogrudova, Eduards Krumins

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The relevance of the topic is determined by the rapid development of global events, the continuing upcoming challenges that affect the working environment and the development of the labour market and the need for managers to cope with new and unprecedented challenges. The learning context is also developing, introducing new opportunities, and learning methods that complement each other.

The level of competence was assessed by the respondents for eight of their competences, selected according to the Great Eight Competence Model, which is one of the current perspectives on how to capture the competences required of a manager.

Aim of the study: To explore the learning methods chosen by managers in developing competencies, and to make suggestions for managers and organizations to design a competency development process that is relevant to the current learning context. A total of 114 managers participated in the study.

Main conclusions: managers highly evaluate their level of development of their competences, but they see a place for growth and further development for all competencies. Managers more often use passive learning methods, which they evaluate lower in terms of effectiveness than active methods that are based on their own experience. There are no significant differences between different level managers and the duration of their experience. There is a difference between the capacity to develop competencies in organizations. The lowest capacity to develop competencies is in the public sector organizations.


Leadership, Competences, Modern Learning, Unawareness Learning

Full Text:



Bartram, D. (2005). The Great Eight Competencies: A Criterion-Centric Approach to Validation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1185-1203.

Craps, S., Pinxten, M., Knipprath, H., & Langie, G. (2021). Different roles, different demands. A competency-based professional roles model for early career engineers, validated in industry and higher education. European Journal of Engineering Education, 47(1), 144-163.

Criollo-C, Guerrero-Arias, A. Jaramillo-Alcázar, Á., & Luján-Mora, S. (2021). Mobile learning technologies for education: Benefits and pending issues. Applied Sciences, 11(9), 4111.

Dale, E. (Eds.) (1946). Audio-visual Methods in Teachin. New York: Dryden Press.

Dent, F. E., Macgregor, R. A., & Wills, S. (1994). The Ashridge Guide to Self-Managed Development. London: Pitman Publishing.

Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (Eds)(2011). From game design elements to gamefulness:defining "gamification". Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference:Envisioning Future Media Environments. ACM. New York:T he Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

EI Design, 2022. Mobile Apps. Retrieved from: Accessed on: 10 May 2023.

Fotso, G. M. N. (2022). Differences Between Senior Human Resources Managers and Young Millennials Leaders on the Perceived Required Leadership Competencies for the 21st century. Journal of Human Resource Management, 10(1), 5.

Gejendhiran, S., Anicia, S. A., Vignesh, S. N., & Kalaimani, M. (2020). Disruptive Technologies - A promising key for Sustainable Future Education. Procedia Computer Science, 172, 843-847.

Grīnfelde, A., (2017). Mentorings kā jauno skolotāju atbalsta veids Latvijā. [Mentoring as a way to support new teachers in Latvia] Master thesis. Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies.

Kavanagh, S., Luxton-Reilly, A., Wuens, B., & Plimmer, B. (2017). A systematic review of Virtual Reality in education. Themes in Science & Technology Education, 10(2), 85-119.

Leigh, D. (Eds) 1996. Designing and Delivering Training for Group. London: Kogan Page Limited.

Lieģeniece, D. (2002). Ievads andragoģijā. [Introduction to andragogy]. Riga: Raka

Mali, M., Sonawane, S., & Jadhav, V. (2021). Micro-learning (ML): An effective way of learning in Teacher Education. Zeichen Journal, 7(7), 101-108.

Mārtinsone, K. & Zakriževska-Belogrudova, M. (2021). Supervīzija.[Supervision]. Latvian National Encyclopedia:supervision. Retrieved from: Accessed on: 22 August 2023.

Pease, G., Beresford, B., & Walker, L. (2014). Developing human capital: Using analytics to plan and optimize your learning and development investments. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Pietroni, E. (2019). Experience Design, Virtual Reality and Media Hybridization for the Digital Communication Inside Museums. Applied system innovation, 2(4), 35.

Priscila, 2021. What is Mobile Learning (m-learning)? Definition explained, Retrieved from: Accessed on: 23 April 2023.

Reinsone, S. (2020). Studiju darba apraksts: Mobilo tālruņu balstītas mikromācīšanās izpēte, [Exploring mobile phone-based microlearning], Retrieved from: Accessed on: 3 August 2023.

Smutný, P., Procházka, J., & Vaculík, M. (2014). Developing managerial competency model. In Pavel Jedlička. Economic Development and Management of Regions (pp. 309-315). Hradec Králové: University of Hradec Králové.

Snidzane, L., & Golubeva, J. K. (2021). Koučinga tehnikas. Soli pa solim. Sev, komandai, biznesam. [Coaching techniques. Step by step. For yourself, for your team, for your business]. Jelgava: SIA "MetaCoach"

Stoten, D. W. (2021). Building adaptive management capability:the contribution of heutagogy to management development in turbulent times. Journal of Management Development, 40(2), 121-137.

Valcour, M. (2020). Anyone Can Learn to Be a Better Leader. Retrieved from: Available at: 30 July 2023

Werbach, K. (2014). (Re)Defining Gamification: A Process Approach. Persuasive 2014, LNCS 8462, pp. 266-272 , Available at SSRN:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

© University of Niš, Serbia
Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-ND
ISSN 0354-4699 (Print)
ISSN 2406-050X (Online)