Nadica Figar

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The present paper stresses the fact that the expatriation process is extremely important for companies that intend to internationalize their operations, as well as for companies that have already internationalized their operations. This is owing to the fact that expatriation is a continuous process, whether viewed in its narrow or broad sense. Furthermore, the most successful approach to expatriation is the holistic approach which entails an active role of the company in the preparation for expatriation, expatriation, and repatriation. This is further confirmed by the presented practices of selected companies.


expatriates, self-initiated expatriates, host country, home country, expatriation, cultural shock

Full Text:



Black, S. and Gregersen, H. (1999). The right way to manage expat. Harvard Business Review. No 2.

Brewster, C, Vernon, C. (2007). International Human Resource Management. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Caligiuri, M. P. (2000). The big five personality characteristics as predictors of expatriate′s desire to terminate the assignment and supervisor-rated performance. Personnes Psychology. Vol. 53 (1): 67-75.

Caligiuri, M. P., Colakoglu, S. (2007). A strategic contigency approach to expatriate assignment management. Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 17 4): 393-410.

Cardo, M. (2008). Is passion contagious? The transference of entrepreneurial passion to employees. Human Resource Management Review. No 2.

Cerdin, J-L., Selmer, J. (2014). Who is a self-initiated expatriate? Towards conceptual clarity of a common notion. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. Vol. 25, No 9: 1281-1301.

Doherty, N., Richardson, J. , Thorn, K. (2013). Self-initiated expatriation. Career Development International. Vol. 18 (1): 6-11.

Doherty, N., Richardson, J. and Thorn, K. (2013). Self-initiated expatriation and self-initiated expatriates. Career Development International. Vol. 18 (1): 97-112.

Dowling, P., Festing, M, Engle, A. (2008). International human resource management. Cengage Learning EMEA.

Fee, A. and Gray. J. S. (2011). Fast-tracking expatriate development: the unique learning environment of international volunteer placements. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. Vol. 22 (3): 530-552.

Froese, J. F. (2011). Cultural distance and expatriate job satisfaction. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Vol.35 (1): 49-60.

Gorman, Ph. and Thomas, H. (1997). The theory and practice of competence-based competition. Long Range Planning. No 4.

Griffen, S. N. (2003). Personalize your management development. Harvard Business Review. March: 113-119.

Hudson, Sh., Inkson, K. (2006). Volunnteer overseas development workers: the hero′s adventure and personal transformation. Career Development International. Vol. 11 (4): 304-320.

Inkson, K., Arthur, B. M., Pringle, J., Barry, S. (2013). Expatriate assignment versus overseas experience: contrasting model of international human resource development. International Human Resource Development. 351-368.

Khakhar, P., Gulzar Rammual, H. (2013). Culture and business networks: International business negotiations with Arab managers. International Business Review. Vol. 22 (3): 578-590.

Lado, A., Wilson, M. (1994). Human resource systems and sustainable competitive advantage: A competency-based perspective. Academy of Management Review. No 4.

Maurer, S., Li, S. (2006). Understanding expatriate manager performance: Effects of governance environments on work relationships in relation-based economies. Human Resource Management Review, No 1.

McNulty, M. Y. and Tharenoy, Ph. (2004). Expatriate Return on Investment. International Studies of Management and Organization, Vol. 34 (3): 68-95.

Milovanović, G. (2015). Kulturno okruženje i njegova relevantnost za međunarodni marketing. Niš: Ekonomski fakultet Univerziteta u Nišu.

Selmer, J. (1999). Culture shock in China? Adjustment pattern of western expatriate business managers. International Business Review. Vol. 8: 515-534.

Selmer, J., Lauring, J. (2013). Dispositional affectivity and work outcomes of expatriates. International Business Review. Vol. 22: 568-577.

Tharenou, Ph. (2015). Researching expatriate types: the quest for rigorous methodological approaches. Human Resource Management Journal. Vol. 25 (2): 149-165.

Toh, S., Denisi, A. (2003). Host country national reactions to expatriate pay policies: A model and imlications. Academy of Management Review. No 4.

VanBakel, M., Gerritsen, M. and VanOudenhoven, P. J. (2014). Impact of a local host on the intercultural ccompetence of expatriates. The International Journal of Human resource Management. Vol. 25 (4): 2050-2067.

Wasserman, N. (2008). The founder′s dilemma. Harvard Business Review. February.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© University of Niš, Serbia
Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-ND
ISSN 0354-4699 (Print)
ISSN 2406-050X (Online)