Satish Kumar Gannamaneni, Jibendu Sekhar Roy

DOI Number
First page
Last page


In cooperative communication the effect of channel fading can be improved by cooperation between the user terminals and the relay nodes in wireless networks. In a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), cooperative relaying improves the link quality with a relatively high Energy Efficiency Gain (EEG). In this paper, optimized parameters are used in WSN to enhance the EEG using particle swarm optimization (PSO) and Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RGA). Maximum enhancements of EEG obtained using RGA for M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM) is 64% for M=16, 87% for M=32, and 97% for M=64 compared to EEG obtained without optimization. The superiority proposed optimization methods are verified by comparing with results without optimization and by comparing with the published results for Energy Efficiency (EE).


cooperative communication, energy efficiency, relay, real-coded genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization

Full Text:



A. Nosratinia, T. E. Hunter and A. Hedayat, "Cooperative Communication in Wireless Networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 74-80, 2004.

W. Zhang and K. B. Letaief, "Cooperative Communications for Cognitive Radio Networks", Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 878-93, May 2009.

R. Deka, S. Chakraborty and J. S. Roy, "Optimization of Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using Genetic Algorithm", FU: Elec. Energ., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 235-243, Dec. 2012.

M. Asshad, S. A. Khan, A. Kavak, K. Küçük and D. L. Msongaleli, "Cooperative Communications using Relay Nodes for Next-Generation Wireless Networks with Optimal Selection Techniques: A review", Trans.Elect. Electron. Eng., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 658-669, 2019.

F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci, "A Survey on Sensor Networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 102-105, 2002.

J. N. Laneman, D. N. C. Tse and G. W. Wornell, "Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks: Efficient Protocols and Outage Behavior", IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 3062-3080, 2004.

Y. Sankarasubramaniam, I. F. Akyildiz and S. W. McLaughlin, "Energy Efficiency Based Packet Size Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks", In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Sensor Network Protocols and Applications, 11 May, Anchorage, AK, USA, 2003, pp. 1-8.

R. Zhang and J. Gorce, "Optimal Transmission Range for Minimum Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks", In Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, Mar. 31-Apr. 3 2008, pp. 757-762.

S. K. Jayaweera, "Virtual MIMO-based Cooperative Communication for Energy-Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 984-989, May 2006.

S. Mao, J. Wu, L. Liu, D. Lan and A. Taherkordi, "Energy-Efficient Cooperative Communication and Computation for Wireless Powered Mobile-Edge Computing", IEEE Syst. J., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 287-298, March 2022.

Z. Sheng, C. Mahapatra, V. C. M. Leung, M. Chen and P. K. Sahu, "Energy Efficient Cooperative Computing in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Trans. Cloud Comput., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 114-126, Jan. 2018.

P. Ramezani and A. Jamalipour, "Throughput Maximization in Dual-Hop Wireless Powered Communication Networks", IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol., vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 9304-9312, Oct. 2017.

M. M. Fareed and M. Uysal, "On Relay Selection for Decode-and-Forward Relaying", IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 3341-3346, July 2009.

S. Wang and J. Nie, "Energy Efficiency Optimization of Cooperative Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks", EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw., vol. 2010, Article ID 162326, pp. 1-8, May 2010.

F. K. Ojo, D. O. Akande and M. F. M. Salleh, "Optimal Power Allocation in Cooperative Networks With Energy-Saving Protocols", IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol., vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 5079-5088, May 2020.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, D. Tian, Z. Sheng, X. Duan and V. C. M. Leung, "Robust Cooperative Communication Optimization for Multi-UAV-Aided Vehicular Networks", IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 780-784, April 2021.

Y. Cao and H. Pan, "Energy-Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Strategy for Cognitive Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Particle Swarm Optimization", IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 214707-214715, 2020.

R. Kanthavel, S. I. Priyadharshini, D. Sudha, K. S. Velrani and R. Dhaya, "Multi-Hoped Cooperative Communication-Based Wireless Underground Sensor Network Design", Int. J. Commun. Syst., vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1-20, July 2022.

K. Senthil Kumar and R. Amutha, "An Algorithm for Energy Efficient Cooperative Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks", KSII Trans. Internet and Information Syst., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 3080-3099, July 2016.

K. C. Reddy, G. D. Devanagavi and T. M. N., "EARPC – Energy Aware Routing Protocol for Cooperative MIMO Scheme in WSNs", J. Telecommun. Inform. Technol., vol. 3, pp. 22–27, 2020.

G. E. R. Patil and M. N. Thippeswamy, "EECPH: Energy Efficient Cooperative Communication Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks", J. Math. Comput. Sci., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 3317-3330, 2021.

L. Guo, Z. Zhu, F. C. M. Lau, Y. Zhao and H. Yu, "Joint Security and Energy-Efficient Cooperative Architecture for 5G Underlaying Cellular Networks", Symmetry, vol.14, p. 1160, 2022.

T. Liu, X. Qu, W. Tan and Y. Cheng, "An Energy Efficient Cooperative Communication Scheme In Ambient RF Powered Sensor Networks", IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 86545-86554, July 2019.

MICA2 Datasheet, Crossbow Technology [EB/OL], 2008. Available:

K. Deb and A. Kumar, "Real-coded Genetic Algorithms with Simulated Binary Crossover: Studies on Multimodal and Multiobjective Problems", Complex Syst., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 431-454, 1995.

R. L. Haupt and S. E. Haupt, Practical Genetic Algorithms. New York: Wiley, 2nd Ed., 2004.

J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, "Particle Swarm Optimization", In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, San Francisco, USA, 1995, pp. 1942-1948.

A. Deb, J. S. Roy and B. Gupta, "Performance Comparison of Differential Evolution, Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm in the Design of Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 3920-3928, Aug, 2014.

I. S. Umayya, A. Aprilya, M. C. Mayarakaca, M. Milchan, Y. Moegiharto and H. Briantoro, "Energy Efficiency of The Cooperative Communication Systems With Energy Harvested at Source and Relay Using Battery Power at Relay", In Proceedings of the International Electronics Symposium (IES), 2022, pp. 216-219.

G. Lim and L. J. Cimini, "Energy-Efficient Cooperative Relaying in Heterogeneous Radio Access Networks", IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett., vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 476-479, Oct. 2012.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 0353-3670 (Print)

ISSN: 2217-5997 (Online)

COBISS.SR-ID 12826626