Milos Petkovic, Vladimir Sibinović, Dragiša Popović, Vladimir Mitić, Darko Todorović, Goran S. Đorđević

DOI Number
First page
Last page


This paper presents two simple and cost effective indoor localisation methods. The first method uses ceiling-mounted wide-view angle webcam, computer vision and coloured circular markers, placed on the top of a robot. Main drawbacks of this method are lens distortion and sensitivity to lighting conditions. After solving these problems, a high localisation accuracy of ±1cm is achieved at about 5 Hz sampling rate. The second method is a version of trilateration, based on ultrasound time of flight distance measurement. An ultrasonic beacon is placed on a robot while wall detectors are strategically placed to avoid an excessive occlusion. The ZigBee network is used for inter-device synchronisation and for broadcasting measured data. Robot location is determined as a solution to the minimisation of measurement errors. Using Nelder-Mead algorithm and low-cost distance measuring devices, a solid sub 5 cm localisation accuracy is achieved at 10Hz.


Robot localization, Nelder-Mead, Gnu Scientific Library, USB camera, OpenCV

Full Text:



M. Petković, V. Sibinović, D. Popović, V. Mitić, D. Todorović and G. S. Đorđević, “Robust indoor localisation methods of mobile robots: direct visual feedback and time-of-flight trilateration”, In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Electrical, Electronic and Computing Engineering (IcETRAN 2016), Zlatibor, Serbia, June 13 – 16, 2016, ELI2.6 1-6.

"Microsoft Indoor Localisation Competition". N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Apr. 2016.

J. Borenstein, et al, “Mobile Robot Positioning - Sensors and Techniques”, Invited paper for the Journal of Robotic Systems, Special Issue on Mobile Robots, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 231 – 249, 1996.

"The Cricket Indoor Location System: An NMS Project". N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Apr. 2016.

N. B. Priyantha, A. Chakraborty and H. Balakrishnan, “The Cricket Location-Support system”, In Proceedings of the 6th ACM MOBICOM, Boston, MA, August 2000.

C. Hughes, et al., “Wide-angle camera technology for automotive applications: a review”, IET Intelligent Transport Systems, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 19-31, 2009.

Z. Garofalaki, et al, “Object Motion Tracking Based On Color Detection for Android Devices”, International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 970-973, 2015.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization”, Computer Journal, no. 7, pp. 308–313, 1965.

R. Storn and K. Price, “Differential evolution - a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces”, Journal of Global Optimization, no. 11, pp. 341–359, 1997.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt Jr and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by Simulated Annealing”, Science, vol. 220, no. 4598, pp. 671–680, 1983.

L. A. Rastrigin, “The convergence of the random search method in the extremal control of a many parameter system”, Automation and Remote Control, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1337–1342, 1963.

C. M. Liang, N. B. Priyantha, J. Liu and A. Terzis “Surviving Wi-Fi Interference in Low Power ZigBee Networks”, In Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, ACM NY, 2010, pp. 309-322.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 0353-3670 (Print)

ISSN: 2217-5997 (Online)

COBISS.SR-ID 12826626