### MODELLING SOLAR CELL S-SHAPED I-V CHARACTERISTICS WITH DC LUMPED-PARAMETER EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS A REVIEW

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#### Abstract

This article reviews and appraises the dc lumped-parameter equivalent circuit models that have been proposed so far for representing some types of solar cells that can exhibit under certain circumstances a detrimental S-shaped concave deformation within the energy-producing fourth quadrant of their illuminated I–V characteristics. We first present a very succinct recollection of lumped-parameter equivalent circuits that are commonly used to model conventional solar cells in general. We then chronologically present and discuss lumped-parameter equivalent sub-circuits that, combined with conventional solar cell equivalent circuits, are used to specifically represent the undesired S-shaped behaviour. The mathematically descriptive equations of each complete equivalent circuit are also examined, and closed form solutions for the terminal current and voltage as explicit functions of each other are presented and discussed whenever available. While comparing the most salient features and explaining the practical advantages and disadvantages of such equivalent circuit models, we offer some comments on possible directions for further improvement.

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