Dragan Stevanović, Aleksandar Janjić

DOI Number
First page
Last page


In this paper, the new methodology for the determination of circuit breakers (CB) replacement time has been proposed. The methodology is based on statistical analysis of condition monitored data and the impact on substation reliability. Influence of CB removal on substations reliability is presented together with cost justification of such investment. Using statistical data of 427 CBs gathered in past 10 years, Weibull probability distribution of contact resistance for breakers on both overhead and underground feeders and voltage levels of 35 kV and 10 kV is determined. Substations reliability is calculated using minimal path and minimal cuts method. With this methodology influence of CB’s condition on substations reliability can be observed by using real field data. Example of calculation is shown on 35/10 kV substation. Substation reliability calculation is carried out for 5 different scenarios of CB removal with their expenses. At the end, discounted investment costs for each action and period of 5 years are calculated and are shown in table. For this substation final results are showing best scenario with removal CB’s on power transformers. 


circuit breaker, cost evaluation, substation, reliability, Weibull distribution

Full Text:



D. Stevanović, A. Janjić, “Circuit Breaker Replacement Strategy Based on the Substation Risk Assessment”, In Proceedings of the 4th Virtual International Conference on Science, Technology and Management in Energy, eNergetics 2018, October 25-26, Niš, Serbia, pp. 248–253.

Y. Hu, S. Liu, H. Lu, H. Zhang, “Remaining useful life assessment and its application in the decision for remanufacturing”, Procedia CIRP, vol. 15, pp. 212–217, 2014.

H. Picard, J. Verstraten, M. Hakkens, R. Vervaet, “Decision model for End of Life management of switchgears”, In Proceedings of the El. and Instr. Appl. in the Petroleum & Chem. Ind., PCIC Europe 4th European Conference, Jun. 2007.

C. Okoh, R. Roy, J. Mehnen, L. Redding, “Overview of Remaining Useful Life Prediction Techniques in Through-Life Engineering Services”, ScienceDirect, Procedia CIRP, vol. 16, pp. 158–163, 2014.

J. Z. Sikorska, M. Hodkiewicz, L. Ma, “Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry”, Mech. Syst. and Sign. Process., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1803–1836, Jul. 2011.

X. S. Si, W. Wang, C. H. Hu, D. H. Zhou, “Remaining useful life estimation – A review on the statistical data driven approaches”, European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 2013, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Aug. 2011.

M. Braunović, V. V. Konchits, N. K. Myshkin, Fundamentals of Electrical Contacts, CRC Press, 2006.

A. H. A. Bakar, H. A. Illias, M. K. Othman, H. Mokhils, “Identification of failure root causes using condition based monitoring data on a 33 kV switchgear”, El. Power and Energy Systems, vol. 47, pp. 305–312, May, 2013.

S. Natti, M. Kezunovic, “Assessing circuit breaker performance using condition-based data and Bayesian approach”, El. Power Systems Research, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 1796–1804, Sep. 2011

A. Janssen, D. Makareinis, C. E. Sölver, “International Survey on Circuit-Breaker Reliability Data for Substation and System Studies”, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery., vol. 29, pp. 808–814, Apr. 2014.

P. Sun, H. Jiang, H. Yu, X. Huang, Y. Sun, X. Wang, “Reliability evaluation of high voltage circuit breaker based on IFAHP and GA”, ICAEES, Nov. 2015.

J. F. Boudreau, S. Poirier, “End-of-life assessment of electric power equipment allowing for non-constant hazard rate – Application to circuit breakers”, El. Power and Energy Systems, vol. 62, pp. 556–561, Nov. 2014.

X. Zhang, E. Gockenbach, Z. Liu, H. Chen, L. Yang, “Reliability estimation of high voltage SF6 circuit breakers by statistical analysis on the basis of the field data”, El. Power System Research, vol. 103, pp. 105–113, Oct. 2013

L. Jian, T. Tianyuan, “LS-SVM based substation circuit breaker maintenance scheduling optimization”, El. Power and Energy System, vol. 64, pp. 1251–1258, Jan. 2015.

G. Balzer, F. Heil, P. Kirchesch, R. Meister, C. Neumann, “Evaluation of failure data of HV circuit-breakers for condition based maintenance”, CIGRE, Paris, report A3-305, 2004.

T. M. Lindquist, L. Bertling, R. Eriksson, “Circuit breaker failure data and reliability modelling”, IET Gen., Transm. & Distrib. vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 813–820, Nov. 2008.

ABB Switzerland Ltd, Substation Reliability Management Services, 2016,

D. Nack, Reliability of Substation Configurations, Iowa State University, 2005.

S.H. Kim, D. J. Lee, Substation Reliability Evaluation Considering the Failure Events, IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 159, 2018.

C. J. Zapata, A. Alzate, M. A. Ríos, “Reliability Assessment of Substations using Stochastic Point Processes and Monte Carlo Simulation”, IEEE PES General Meeting, July 2010

F.Wang, “Reliability Evaluation of Substations Subject to Protection Failures”, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, July 2012.

R. Billington and G. Lian, “Monte Carlo Approach to Substation Reliability Evaluation,” IEE Proceedings-C, vol. 1 40, No. 2, March 1993.

Common specifications for high-voltage switchgear and controlgear standards, International standard IEC 60694, Edition 2.2, 2002-01

Operating manual for medium voltage medium oil circuit breakers for internal assembly, Minel, Serbia, 1984

T. Suwanasri, M. T. Hlaing, C. Suwanasri, “Failure Rate Analysis of Power Circuit Breaker in High Voltage Substation“,GMSARN International Journal, vol. 8, pp. 1–6, 2014.

J. Z. Sikorska, M. Hodkiewicz, L. Ma, “Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry”, Mech. Syst. and sign. Process, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1803–1836, Jul. 2011.

W. Li, J. Zhou, J. Lu, W. Yan "A Probabilistic Analysis Approach to Making Decision on Retirement of Aged Equipment in Transmission Systems" IEEE trans. on power delivery, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1891–1896, July 2007.

J. Nahman, V. Mijailović, “Razvodna postrojenja”, Beograd, 2005


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 0353-3670 (Print)

ISSN: 2217-5997 (Online)

COBISS.SR-ID 12826626