Dejan Nikolic, Nikola Stojkovic, Pavle Petrovic, Nikola Tosic, Nikola Lekic, Zoran Stankovic, Nebojsa Doncov

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With maximum range of about 200 nautical miles (approx. 370 km) High Frequency Surface Wave Radars (HFSWR) provide unique capability for vessel detection far beyond the horizon without utilization of any moving platforms. Such uniqueness requires design principles unlike those usually used in microwave radar. In this paper the key concepts of HFSWR based on Frequency Modulated Continuous (FMCW) principles are presented. The paper further describes operating principles with focus on signal processing techniques used to extract desired data. The signal processing describes range and Doppler processing but focus is given to the Digital Beamforming (DBF) and Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) models. In order to better present the design process, data obtained from the HFSWR sites operating in the Gulf of Guinea are used.   


High Frequency Surface Wave, radar, maritime surveillance, Digital Beamforming, Constant False Alarm Ratio, Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave.

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