Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg
Editor-in-Chief: Ninoslav D. Stojadinović, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Nis, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Nis, Serbia, E-mail: <a href="mailto:ninoslav.stojadinovic@elfak.ni.ac.rs">ninoslav.stojadinovic@elfak.ni.ac.rs</a>en-USfueaeed@junis.ni.ac.rs (Prof. Ninoslav D. Stojadinović)fueaets@junis.ni.ac.rs (Danijel Danković)Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:45 +0100OJS 2.4.8.2http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss60GUEST EDITORIAL
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3308
The Reed-Muller Workshop has been held biennially since 1993, and since 2007 has been co-located with the IEEE International Symposium on Multiple-valued Logic and supported by the IEEE Computer Society Technical Committee on Multiple-valued Logic. Papers presented at the Workshop are provided informally to attendees but workshop proceedings are not formally published.Michael Miller, Tsutomu Sasao
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3308Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:39 +0100ENERGY-EFFICIENT CRYPTOGRAPHIC PRIMITIVES
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3303
Our society greatly depends on services and applications provided by mobile communication networks. As billions of people and devices become connected, it becomes increasingly important to guarantee security of interactions of all players. In this talk we address several aspects of this important, many-folded problem. First, we show how to design cryptographic primitives which can assure integrity and conﬁdentiality of transmitted messages while satisfying resource constrains of low-end low-cost wireless devices such as sensors or RFID tags. Second, we describe counter measures which can enhance the resistance of hardware implementing cryptographic algorithms to hardware Trojans.Elena Dubrova
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3303Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:39 +0100GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR BINARY AND FUNCTIONAL DECISION DIAGRAMS OPTIMIZATION
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3304
Decision diagrams (DD) are a widely used data structure for discrete functions representation. The major problem in DD-based applicationsis the DD size minimization (reduction of the number of nodes), because their size is dependent on the variables order. Genetic algorithms are often used in different optimization problems including the DD size optimization. In this paper, we apply the genetic algorithm to minimize the size of both Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) and Functional Decision Diagrams (FDDs). In both cases, in the proposed algorithm, a Bottom-Up Partially Matched Crossover (BU-PMX) is used as the crossover operator. In the case of BDDs, mutation is done in the standard way by variables exchanging. In the case of FDDs, the mutation by changing the polarity of variables is additionally used. Experimental results of optimization of the BDDs and FDDs of the set of benchmark functions are also presented.Suzana Stojković, Darko Veličković, Claudio Moraga
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3304Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:39 +0100AN IMPROVED SPECTRAL CLASSIFICATION OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS BASED ON AN EXTENDED SET OF INVARIANT OPERATIONS
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3305
Boolean functions expressing some particular properties often appear in engineering practice. Therefore, a lot of research efforts are put into exploring different approaches towards classiﬁcation of Boolean functions with respect to various criteria that are typically selected to serve some speciﬁc needs of the intended applications. A classiﬁcation is considered to be strong if there is a reasonably small number of different classes for a given number of variables n and it it desir able that classiﬁcationrules are simple. A classiﬁcation with respect to Walsh spectral coefﬁcients, introduced formerly for digital system design purposes, appears to be useful in the context of Boolean functions used in cryptography, since it is ina way compatible with characterization of cryptographically interesting functions through Walsh spectral coefﬁcients. This classiﬁcation is performed in terms of certain spectral invariant operations. We show by introducing a new spectral invariant operation in the Walsh domain, that by starting from n≤5, some classes of Boolean functions can be merged which makes the classiﬁcation stronger, and from the theoretical point of view resolves a problem raised already in seventies of the last century. Further, this new spectral invariant operation can be used in constructing bent functions from bent functions represented by quadratic forms.<br /><br />Milena Stankovic, Claudio Moraga, Radomir S. Stankovic
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3305Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:40 +0100CONSTRUCTION OF SUBSETS OF BENT FUNCTIONS SATISFYING RESTRICTIONS IN THE REED-MULLER DOMAIN
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3306
Bent functionsare Booleanfunctionswith highestnonlinearitywhich makes them interesting for cryptography. Determination of bent functions is an importantbut hard problem, since the general structure of bent functions is still unknown. Various constructions methods for bent functions are based on certain deterministic procedures, which might result in some regularitythat is a feature undesired for applications in cryptography. Random generation of bent functions is an alternative, however, the search space is very large and the related procedures are time consuming. A solution is to restrict the search space by imposing some conditions that should be satisﬁed by the produced bent functions. In this paper, we propose three ways of imposing such restrictions to construct subsets of Boolean functions within which the bent functions are searched. We estimate experimentally the number of bent functions in the corresponding subsets of Boolean functions.Miloš Radmanović, Radomir S. Stanković
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3306Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:40 +0100COMPACT XOR-BI-DECOMPOSITION FOR LATTICES OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3307
<p>Bi-Decomposition is a powerful approach for the synthesis of multi-level combinational circuits because it utilizes the properties of the given functions to ﬁnd small circuits, with low power consumption and low delay. Compact bi-decompositions restrict the variables in the support of the decomposition functions as much as possible. Methods to ﬁnd compact AND-, OR-, or XOR-bi-decompositions for a given completely speciﬁed function are well known.</p><p>Lattices of Boolean Functions signiﬁcantly increase the possibilities to synthesize a minimal circuit. However, so far only methods to ﬁnd compact AND- or OR-bidecompositions for lattices of Boolean functions are known. This gap, i.e., a method to ﬁnd a compact XOR-bi-decomposition for a lattice of Boolean functions, has been closed by the approach suggested in this paper.</p>Bernd Steinbach, Christian Posthoff
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3307Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:41 +0100ENUMERATION AND CODING METHODS FOR A CLASS OF PERMUTATIONS AND REVERSIBLE LOGICAL GATES
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3309
We introduce a great variety of coding methods for boolean sparse invertible matrices and we use these methods to create a variety of bijections on the permutation group P(m) of the set {1,2,...,m}. Also, we propose methods for coding, enumerating and shufﬂing the set{0,...,2m−1}, i.e. the set of all m-bit binary arrays. Moreover we show that several well known reversible logic gates/circuits (on m-bit binary arrays) can be coded by sparse matrices.Costas Karanikas, Nikolaos Atreas
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3309Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:41 +0100IMPACT OF CHANNEL ENGINEERING (SI1-0.25GE0.25) TECHNIQUE ON GM (TRANSCONDUCTANCE) AND ITS HIGHER ORDER DERIVATIVES OF 3D CONVENTIONAL AND WAVY JUNCTIONLESS FINFETS (JLT)
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/2907
<em></em><em>The paper explores the analog analysis and higher order derivatives of drain current (ID) at gate source voltage (VGS), by introducing channel engineering technique of 3D conventional and Wavy Junctionless FinFETs (JLT) as silicon germanium (Si1-0.25Ge0.25) device layer. In view of this, the performances are carried out for different gate length (LG) values (15-30 nm) and current characteristics determined by maintaining constant ON current (ION 10-5) (A/μm) for both devices. With respect to this, a comparison has been made between these MOS structures at molefraction x = 0.25 and it was found that the electric field is perpendicular to the current flow which induces volume inversion approach. Accordingly, for the simulation study better channel controllability over the gate is observed for Wavy structures and high ID induces as the LG scales down. With respect to this the constant ION determine ID, transconductance (gm), transconductance generation factor (TGF) and its higher order terms (g\m, and g\\m) of the devices are studied with relaxed SiGe approximation. The extensive simulation study on short channel (SC) parameters are also performed and it is observed that the Wavy JL FinFET shows less sensitivity towards short channel effects (SCEs) over conventional one, therefore the dependency of N-type doping concentration (ND = 1.7x1019 cm-3) and metal workfunction (ϕM = 4.6 eV) are responsible to achieving reduced SCEs. </em>B Vandana, Jitendra Kumar Das, Sushanta K. Mohapatra, Suman Lata Tripathi
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/2907Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:41 +0100IMPROVING NETWORK LIFETIME BY MINIMIZING ENERGY HOLE PROBLEM IN WSN FOR THE APPLICATION OF IoT
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/2910
<em><span><em>The world today is at the Internet of Things (IoT) inflection point with more number of products adding to its intelligence system through a wide range of connectivity. Wireless sensor Networks (WSN) have been very useful in IoT application for gathering and processing of data to the end user. However, limited battery power and network lifetime are few of the major challenges in the designing process of any sensor network. One of those is the Energy Hole Problem (EHP) that arises when the nodes nearer to the sink or base station die out early due to excess load as compared to other nodes that are far away. This breaks the connection of the network from the sink which results in shortening the lifetime of the network.</em> <em>In this paper, a trade-off is maintained between network lifetime and power requirement by implementing a sleep-awake mechanism.With the help of MATLAB simulations, it is found that after applying the mechanism, the network lifetime was extended to almost 300 and 700 rounds for TEEN and LEACH protocol respectively. The results will be beneficial for the design process in WSN for IoT application.</em></span></em><em></em>Trupti M. Behera, Sushanta K. Mohapatra
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/2910Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:42 +0100DESIGN OF NOVEL EFFICIENT FULL ADDER ARCHITECTURE FOR QUANTUM-DOT CELLULAR AUTOMATA TECHNOLOGY
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/2929
<p class="Abstract">In this paper the novel coplanar circuits for full adder implementation in Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) technology are presented. We propose a novel one-bit full adder circuit and then utilize this new circuit to implement novel four-bit Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) circuit in the QCA technology. The QCADesigner tool version 2.0.1 is utilized to implement the designed QCA full adder circuits. The implementation results show that the designed QCA full adder circuits have an improvement compared to other QCA full adder circuits.<strong><em> </em></strong><br /><strong> </strong></p>Dariush Mokhtari, Abdalhossein Rezai, Hamid Rashidi, Faranak Rabiei, Saeid Emadi, Asghar Karimi
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/2929Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:43 +0100VISION INSPECTION AND MONITORING OF WIND TURBINE FARMS IN EMERGING SMART GRIDS
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/2947
<p class="Abstract">Todays, Smart Grids as the goal of next generation power grid system span wide and new aspects of power generation from distributed and bulk power generators to the end-user utilities. There are many advantages to develop these complex and multilayer system of systems such as increasing agility, reliability, efficiency, privacy, security for both Energy and ICT sections in smart grid architecture. In emerging smart grids, the communication infrastructures play main role in grid development and as a result multimedia applications are more practical for the future power systems. In this work, we introduce our method for monitoring and inspection of Wind Turbine (WT) farms in smart grids. In our proposed system, a thermal vision camera is embedded on a wireless sensor node for each WT to capture appropriate images and send video streams to the coordinator. It gets video frames to perform machine Vision Inspection (VI) and monitoring purposes. In our constructed model, turbine blade velocity estimation is targeted by detecting two important landmarks in the image that are named hub and blade. By tracking the blade in the consecutive frames and based on proposed scoring function, we can estimate the velocity of the turbine blade. Obtained results clearly indicate that accurate hub and blade positions extraction lead to error free estimation of turbine blade velocity.</p>Mahdi Bahaghighat, Seyed Ahmad Motamedi
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/2947Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:43 +0100ON A PROPERTY OF THE REED-MULLER-FOURIER TRANSFORM
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3080
<p><em>The Reed-Muller-Fourier is reviewed and a new property is presented: The Reed-Muller-Fourier transform of an n-place p-valued function preserves any permutation of the arguments. This leads to the additional result that the Reed-Muller-Fourier spectrum of an n-place p-valued symmetric function is also symmetric. Furthermore, the Reed-Muller and the Vilenkin-Chrestenson spectra of an n-place p-valued symmetric function are also symmetric.</em></p>Claudio Moraga
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3080Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:44 +0100THE SURFACE RECOMBINATION VELOCITY AND BULK LIFETIME INFLUENCES ON PHOTOGENERATED EXCESS CARRIER DENSITY AND TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN N-TYPE SILICON
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3115
<p><em>The temperature distributions in the n-type silicon circular plate, excited by a frequency-modulated light source from one side, are investigated theoretically in the frequency domain. The influence of the photogenerated excess carrier density on the temperature distributions is considered with respect to the sample thickness, surface quality and carrier lifetime. The presence of the thermalization and non-radiative recombination processes are taken into account. The existence of the fast and slow heat sources in the sample is recognized. It is shown that the temperature distribution on sample surfaces is a sensitive function of an excess carrier density under a bulk and surface recombination. The most favorable values of surface velocities ratio and bulk lifetime are established, assigned for a simpler and more effective analysis of the carrier influence in semiconductors. The photothermal and photoacoustic transmission detection configuration is proposed as a most suitable experimental scheme for the investigation of the excess carrier influence on the silicon surface temperatures.</em></p>Dragana K. Markushev, Dragan D. Markushev, Slobodanka Galović, Sanja Aleksić, Dragan Pantić, Dragan М. Todorović
Copyright (c) 2018 Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics
http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUElectEnerg/article/view/3115Tue, 20 Feb 2018 15:10:44 +0100