ECOLOGY OF CRIME IN URBAN AND SUBURBAN AREA – SPATIAL PATTERNS OF CRIME IN NIS, SERBIA

Dušan Stanković

DOI Number
-
First page
037
Last page
052

Abstract


Ecological perspective in criminology has been introduced with the cartographic school at the beginning of criminology science. Ecology theory of crime has been developed in the city of Chicago and it is followed by the routine activity theory, crime pattern theory, and rational choice theory. The impact of the ecological theory in research of crime is noticeable in today's studies too. Modern scientists, researchers, and practitioners are studying crime using the geographic information system, mapping crime, using statistical and geostatistical methods. With the aim to study spatial patterns of crime, empirical research of the poverty and violent criminal acts committed in the City of Nis, Republic of Serbia, during the years 2008, 2013 and 2018. All the cases are geocoded into spatial units that represent urban and suburban areas in Nis. A descriptive statistic is used to identify areas where crime happens the most. The application of Andersen’s Spatial Point Pattern Test is used to check the hypothesis that spatial crime pattern is stable over time. This hypothesis is not confirmed and it is found that crime move from the city core towards cities’ urban and suburban settlements. The results from the empirical research are of scientific and practical value. This kind of spatial analysis is one of the first in Serbia and Balkans, and the application of the Spatial Point Pattern Test is very first in this region. The results could be useful when creating security strategies and policies to prevent crime by the police, decision-makers, and others.

Keywords

crime concentration, property crime, violent crime, Spatial Point Pattern Test (SPPT), urban and suburban areas, Niš, Serbia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andresen, М. (2009). Testing for similarity in area-based spatial patterns: A nonparametric Monte Carlo approach. Applied Geography. Vol.29, No.3, pp. 333–345.

Andresen, M. Malleson, N. (2011). Testing the Stability of Crime Patterns: Implications for Theory and Policy. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. Vol.48, No. 1, pp. 58-82.

Andresen, M. Malleson, N. (2014). Police Foot Patrol and Crime Displacement: A Local Analysis. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. Vol.30, No.2, pp. 186–199. Retrieved 10.10.2019. from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.829.8412&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

Andresen, M. A., Linning, S. J., & Malleson, N. (2017). Crime at places and spatial concentrations: Exploring the spatial stability of property crime in Vancouver BC, 2003–2013. Journal of Quantitative Criminology. Vol. 33, No. 255. doi:10.1007/s10940-016-9295-8.

Brantingham, P. Brantingham, P. (1995). Criminality of Place: Crime Generators and Crime Attractors. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. Vol.13, No.3, pp. 5-26.

Cohen, L. E. Felson, М. (1979). Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach. American Sociological Review. Vol. 44, pp 588-605.

Ignjatovic, Dj. (2006). Kriminologija (Criminology). Belgrade: Official Gazzette.

Konstantinovic-Vilic, S. Nikolic-Ristanovic, V. Kostic, M. (2012). Kriminologija (Criminology). Nis: Faculty of Law of the University of Nis.

Lee, Y. Eck, J. SooHyun, О. Martinez N. (2017). How concentrated is crime at places? A systematic review from 1970 to 2015. Crime Sciеnce. Vol.6, No.6. Retrieved 01.06.2019. from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40163-017-0069-x.

Malleson, N. Andresen, M. (2014). The impact of using social media data in crime rate calculations: shifting hot changing spatial patterns. Cartography and Geographic Information Science. Vol. 42 No.1, pp. 112-121.

Melo, S. Matias, L. Andresen, M. (2015). Crime concentrations and similarities in spatial crime patterns in a Brazilian context. Applied Geography. Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 314–324.

Ratcliffe, J. (2004). Geocoding crime and a first estimate of a minimum acceptable hit rate. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. Vol. 18, No.1, pp. 61-72.

Sherman, L (1995). Hot spots of crime and criminal careers of places (1995). Retrieved 30.03.2020. from:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241905863_Hot_Spots_of_Crime_and_Criminal_Careers_of_Places

Sherman, L, Gartin. P. Buerger M. (1989).Hot spots of Predatory crime: Routine Activities and the Criminology of Place. Criminology. Vol. 21, No.1, pp. 27-56.

Steenbeek, W., & Weisburd, D. (2016). Where the action is in crime? An examination of variability of crime across different spatial units in the Hague, 2001–2009. Journal of Quantitative Criminology. Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 449–469.

Vandeviver, C., & Bernasco, W., (2017). The geography of crime and crime control. Applied Geography. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2017.08.012.

Vandeviver, C. Steenbeek, W. (2017). The (In)Stability of Residential Burglary Patterns on Street Segments: The Case of Antwerp, Belgium 2005–2016. Journal of Quantitative Criminology. Vol. 35, No.1, pp. 111-133.

Weisburd, D. Bushway, S. Lum, C. Yang, S. (2004). Trajectories of Crime at Places: A Longitudinal Study of Street Segments in the City of Seattle. Criminology. Vol. 42, No.2, pp. 283-321. Retrieved 21.09.2019. from: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2632683.

Weisburd, D. Lorraine, G. (2000) Crime and disorder in drug hot spots: implications for theory and practice in policing. Police Quarterly. Vol.3, No.2, pp. 152-170.

Weisburd, D. Morris, N.. Groff, R. (2009). Hot Spots of Juvenile Crime: A Longitudinal Study of Arrest Incidents at Street Segments in Seattle, Washington. Journal of Quantitative Criminology. Vol. 25, No.4, pp. 443-467. Retrieved 31.10.2019. from:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225355513_Hot_Spots_of_Juvenile_Crime_A_Longitudinal_Study_of_Arrest_Incidents_at_Street_Segments_in_Seattle_Washington.

Wikstrom, P. Dolmen, L. (1990). Crime and Crime Trends in Different Urban Environments. Journal of Quantitative Criminology. Vol.6, No.1, pp. 7-29.

Online Sources:

Criminal code of the Republic of Serbia, retrieved on 01.04.2020, from https://www.osce.org/serbia/18244?download=true.

The official web address of the city of Nis: https://www.ni.rs/


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 1450-5517 (Print)
ISSN 2406-1786 (Online)