Fatima Zivic, Slobodan Mitrovic, Petar Todorovic, Dragan Adamovic, Nenad Grujovic, Marko Spasic, Ivan Stojadinovic

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Dynamic friction coefficient (COF) between Ti6Al4V and Al2O3 was analyzed under low loads (100 mN, 250 mN, 500 mN, 750 mN, 1000 mN), sliding speed (4 mm/s, 8 mm/s, 12 mm/s) at dry contact and in the Ringer's solution. Different Ti6Al4V microstructures were studied: Sample 1 - fully lamellar; Sample 2 - martensitic; sample 3 - equiaxed; and sample 4 - globular microstructure. The maximum COF values varied as: 0.4 - 1.23 (Sample 1), 0.5 – 2.8 (Sample 2), 0.4 – 1.1 (Sample 3), and 0.4 – 2.3 (Sample 4). Lamellar and martensitic microstructures were not beneficial for the tribological response since they exhibited severe wear and very high COF values. The globular Ti alloy microstructure showed extremely high COF and wear under dry conditions. In general, water quenching was not a favorable treatment for tribological behavior. The lowest COF values and wear volumes were exhibited in the case of equiaxed microstructure.


Ti6Al4V, Friction Coefficient, Tribochemical Wear, Reciprocating Sliding

Full Text:



Geetha, M., Singh, A.K., Asokamani, R., Gogia, A.K., 2009, Ti based biomaterials, the ultimate choice for orthopaedic implants – A review, Progress in Materials Science, 54, pp. 397–425.

Kanapaakala, G., Subramani, V., 2022, A review on β-Ti alloys for biomedical applications: The influence of alloy composition and thermomechanical processing on mechanical properties, phase composition, and microstructure, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, 146442072211417.

Wang, Y., An, Y., Hou, G., Zhao, X., Zhou, H., Chen, J., 2023, Effect of cooling rate during annealing on microstructure and ultrasonic cavitation behaviors of Ti6Al4V alloy, Wear, 204529, pp. 512–513.

Gao, P., Fu, M., Zhan, M., Lei, Z., Li, Y., 2020, Deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of titanium alloys with lamellar microstructure in hot working process: A review, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 39, pp. 56–73.

Abdalla, A.O., Amrin, A., Muhammad, S., Hanim, M.A.A., 2017, Effect of heat treatment parameters on the microstructure and microhardness of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference of Global Network for Innovative Technology 2016 (3RD IGNITE-2016): Advanced Materials for Innovative Technologies, Penang, Malaysia, 030001.

Fan, X.G., Meng, M., Gao, P.F., Zhan, M., 2018, Coupled effects of deformation and cooling on the evolution of primary and secondary alpha of two-phase Ti-alloys, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 710, pp. 271–279.

Zivic, F., Babic, M., S.Mitrovic, Vencl, A., 2011, Continuous control as alternative route for wear monitoring by measuring penetration depth during linear reciprocating sliding of Ti6Al4V alloy, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 509, pp. 5748–5754.

Bodunrin, M.O., Chown, L.H., van der Merwe, J.W., Alaneme, K.K., 2019, Hot working of Ti-6Al-4V with a complex initial microstructure, International Journal of Material Forming, 12, pp. 857–874.

Piao, M., Huh, H., Lee, I., Park, L., 2017, Characterization of hardening behaviors of 4130 Steel, OFHC Copper, Ti6Al4V alloy considering ultra-high strain rates and high temperatures, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 131–132, pp. 1117–1129.

Hémery, S., Naït-Ali, A., Guéguen, M., Wendorf, J., Polonsky, A.T., Echlin, M.P., Stinville, J.C., Pollock, T.M., Villechaise, P., 2019, A 3D analysis of the onset of slip activity in relation to the degree of micro-texture in Ti–6Al–4V, Acta Materialia, 181, pp. 36–48.

Wendorf, J., Dawson, P.R., Pollock, T.M., 2022, Grain-Scale Stress States in Microtextured Ti64: Implications for Dwell Fatigue, JOM: the journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 74(19), pp. 3709–3719.

Chong, Y., Bhattacharjee, T., Tian, Y., Shibata, A., Tsuji, N., 2021, Deformation mechanism of bimodal microstructure in Ti-6Al-4V alloy: The effects of intercritical annealing temperature and constituent hardness, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 71, pp. 138–151.

Chávez Díaz, M.P., Henche, S.A., Yanchuck, M.R., de Arriba, C.C., Sierra, R.C., Rincón, M.L.E., Hallen, J.M., 2022, Implantation of heat treatment Ti6al4v alloys in femoral bone of Wistar rats, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 33, 70.

Bocchetta, P., Chen, L.-Y., Tardelli, J.D.C., Reis, A.C. dos, Almeraya-Calderón, F., Leo, P., 2021, Passive Layers and Corrosion Resistance of Biomedical Ti-6Al-4V and β-Ti Alloys, Coatings, 11, 487.

Li, H., Zhao, Z., Ning, Y., Guo, H., Yao, Z., 2018, Characterization of Microstructural Evolution for a Near-α Titanium Alloy with Different Initial Lamellar Microstructures, Metals, 8, 1045.

Fan, Y., Tian, W., Guo, Y., Sun, Z., Xu, J., 2016, Relationships among the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Fatigue Behavior in Thin Ti6Al4V, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2016, 7278267.

Zheng, X., Zheng, S., Wang, J., Ma, Y., Wang, H., Zhou, Y., Shao, X., Zhang, B., Lei, J., Yang, R., Ma, X., 2019, Twinning and sequential kinking in lamellar Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Acta Materialia, 181, pp. 479–490.

Oladokun, A., Hall, R.M., Neville, A., Bryant, M.G., 2019, The evolution of subsurface micro-structure and tribo-chemical processes in cocrmo-ti6al4v fretting-corrosion contacts: What lies at and below the surface? Wear, 203095, pp. 440–441.

Fouvry, S., Arnaud, P., Mignot, A., Neubauer, P., 2017, Contact size, frequency and cyclic normal force effects on Ti–6Al–4V fretting wear processes: An approach combining friction power and contact oxygenation, Tribology International, 113, pp. 460–473.

Takeda, J., Niinomi, M., Akahori, T., Suzuki, Y., Toda, H., 2005, Microstructure and fretting fatigue characteristics of highly workable titanium alloy with equiaxed α and Widmanstaetten α structure. Journal of Japan Instituteof Light Metals, 55, pp. 654–660.

Fukui, H., Yang, W., Tsuruta, S., Kaikawa, K., Sugimura, A., Takeda, S., Niinomi, M., 2005, Ambiguous Transition from Fretting to Sliding of Biomedical Alloys, In: Materials Science Forum, Trans Tech Publications Ltd., Stafa, pp. 2343–2348.

Fan, M., Jin, Y., Han, Y., Ma, L., Li, W., Lu, Y., Zhou, F., Liu, W., 2021, The effect of chemical structure on the tribological performance of perfluorosulfonate ILs as lubricants for Ti-6Al-4V tribopairs, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 321, 114286.

Cvijović-Alagić, I., Cvijović, Z., Bajat, J., Rakin, M., 2016, Electrochemical behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with different microstructures in a simulated bio-environment: Electrochemical behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Materials and Corrosion, 67, pp. 1075–1087.

Kim, J., Plancher, E., Tasan, C.C., 2020, Hydrogenation-induced lattice expansion and its effects on hydrogen diffusion and damage in Ti–6Al–4V, Acta Materialia, 188, pp. 686–696.

Ismail, R., Bayuseno, A.P., Fitriyana, D.F., Taqriban, R.B., Muhamadin, R.C., Al Hakim, R.A.N., Siregar, J.P., 2022, Mechanical properties characterization of Ti6Al4V for artificial hip joint materials prepared by investment casting, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 969, 012001.

Schuh, A., Bigoney, J., Hönle, W., Zeiler, G., Holzwarth, U., Forst, R., 2007, Second generation (low modulus) titanium alloys in total hip arthroplasty, Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik, 38, pp. 1003–1007.

Cortis, G., Mileti, I., Nalli, F., Palermo, E., Cortese, L., 2022, Additive manufacturing structural redesign of hip prostheses for stress-shielding reduction and improved functionality and safety, Mechanics of Materials, 165, 104173.

Hu, C.Y., Yoon, T.-R., 2018, Recent updates for biomaterials used in total hip arthroplasty, Biomaterials Research, 22, 33.

Arabnejad, S., Johnston, B., Tanzer, M., Pasini, D., 2017, Fully porous 3D printed titanium femoral stem to reduce stress-shielding following total hip arthroplasty: Fully Porous 3D Printed Titanium Femoral Stem, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 35, pp. 1774–1783.

Philip, J.T., Mathew, J., Kuriachen, B., 2019, Tribology of Ti6Al4V: A review, Friction, 7, pp. 497–536.

Kaoushik, V.M., Nichul, U., Chavan, V., Hiwarkar, V., 2023, Development of microstructure and high hardness of Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated using laser beam powder bed fusion: A novel sub-transus heat treatment approach, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 937, 168387.

Jiang, Q., Li, S., Guo, S., Fu, M., Zhang, B., 2023, Comparative study on process-structure-property relationships of TiC/Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al4V by selective laser melting, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 241, 107963.

Malakizadi, A., Mallipeddi, D., Dadbakhsh, S., M’Saoubi, R., Krajnik, P., 2022, Post-processing of additively manufactured metallic alloys – A review, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 179, 103908.

Chassaing, G., Pougis, A., Philippon, S., Lipinski, P., Faure, L., Meriaux, J., Demmou, K., Lefebvre, A., 2015, Experimental and numerical study of frictional heating during rapid interactions of a Ti6Al4V tribopair, Wear, 342–343, pp. 322–333.

Maio, L., Liberini, M., Campanella, D., Astarita, A., Esposito, S., Boccardi, S., Meola, C., 2017, Infrared thermography for monitoring heat generation in a linear friction welding process of Ti6Al4V alloy, Infrared Physics & Technology, 81, pp. 325–338.

Schewe, M., Wilbuer, H., Menzel, A., 2021, Simulation of wear and effective friction properties of microstructured surfaces, Wear, 203491, pp. 464–465.

Coulibaly, M., Chassaing, G., 2018, Thermomechanical modelling of dry friction at high velocity applied to a Ti6Al4V-Ti6Al4V tribopair, Tribology International, 119, pp. 795–808.

Jedrasiak, P., Shercliff, H.R., McAndrew, A.R., Colegrove, P.A., 2018, Thermal modelling of linear friction welding, Materials and Design, 156, pp. 362–369.

Masmoudi, M., Assoul, M., Wery, M., Abdelhedi, R., El Halouani, F., Monteil, G., 2006, Friction and wear behaviour of cp Ti and Ti6Al4V following nitric acid passivation, Applied Surface Science, 253, pp. 2237–2243.

Dong, H., Bell, T., 1999, Tribological behaviour of alumina sliding against Ti6Al4V in unlubricated contact, Wear, 225–229, pp. 874–884.

Long, M., Rack, H.J., 2001, Friction and surface behavior of selected titanium alloys during reciprocating-sliding motion, Wear, 249, pp. 157–167.

Zivic F, Babic M, Cvijovic-Alagic I, Mitrovic S, Vencl A, 2011, Wear Behaviour of Ti6Al4V Alloy Against Al2O3 Under Linear Reciprocating Sliding, Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, 17(1), pp. 27-36.

Hager, C.H., Sanders, J.H., Sharma, S., 2006, Effect of high temperature on the characterization of fretting wear regimes at Ti6Al4V interfaces, Wear, 260, pp. 493–508.

Zivic F, Babic M, Mitrovic S, Todorovic P., 2011, Interpretation of the Friction Coefficient During Reciprocating Sliding of Ti6Al4V alloy against Al2O3, Tribology in Industry, 33(1), pp. 36-42.

Cvijović-Alagić, I., Cvijović, Z., Rakin, M., 2019, Damage behavior of orthopedic titanium alloys with martensitic microstructure during sliding wear in physiological solution, International Journal of Damage Mechanics, 28, pp. 1228–1247.

Cvijović-Alagić, I., Cvijović, Z., Mitrović, S., Panić, V., Rakin, M., 2011, Wear and corrosion behaviour of Ti–13Nb–13Zr and Ti–6Al–4V alloys in simulated physiological solution, Corrosion Science, 53, pp. 796–808.

Liu, Y., Liu, W., Ma, Y., Liang, C., Liu, C., Zhang, C., Cai, Q., 2018, Microstructure and wear resistance of compositionally graded Ti Al intermetallic coating on Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated by laser powder deposition, Surface and Coatings Technology, 353, pp. 32–40.

Harouz, R., Lakehal, A., Khelil, K., Dedry, O., Hashemi, N., Boudebane, S., 2022, Dry Sliding Friction And Wear of the WC/TiC-Co in Contact with Al2O3 for Two Sliding Speeds, Facta Universitatis-Series Mechanical Engineering, 20(1), pp. 37-52.

Huet, A., Naït-Ali, A., Giroud, T., Villechaise, P., Hémery, S., 2022, Onset of plastic deformation and strain localization in relation to β phase in metastable β and dual phase Ti alloys, Acta Materialia, 240, 118348.

Li, C.X., Xia, J., Dong, H., 2006, Sliding wear of TiAl intermetallics against steel and ceramics of Al2O3, Si3N4 and WC/Co, Wear, 261, pp. 693–701.

Heinrichs, J., Olsson, M., Jenei, I.Z., Jacobson, S., 2014, Transfer of titanium in sliding contacts—New discoveries and insights revealed by in situ studies in the SEM, Wear, 315, pp. 87–94.

Farokhzadeh, K., Edrisy, A., 2016, Transition between mild and severe wear in titanium alloys, Tribology International, 94, pp. 98–111.

Silva, D., Churiaque, C., Bastos, I., Sánchez-Amaya, J., 2016, Tribocorrosion Study of Ordinary and Laser-Melted Ti6Al4V Alloy, Metals, 6, 253.

Sauger, E., Fouvry, S., Ponsonnet, L., Kapsa, P., Martin, J.M., Vincent, L., 2000, Tribologically transformed structure in fretting, Wear, 245, pp. 39–52.

Licausi, M.P., Muñoz, A.I., Borrás, V.A., Espallargas, N., 2015, Tribocorrosion Mechanisms of Ti6Al4V in Artificial Saliva by Zero-Resistance Ammetry (ZRA) Technique, Journal of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion, 1, 8.

Hammood, A.S., Thair, L., Altawaly, H.D., Parvin, N., 2019, Tribocorrosion Behaviour of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy in Biomedical Implants: Effects of Applied Load and Surface Roughness on Material Degradation, Journal of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion, 5, 85.

Riaz, M.Q., Caputo, M., Ferraro, M.M., Ryu, J.J., 2018, Influence of Process-Induced Anisotropy and Synovial Environment on Wear of EBM Built Ti6Al4V Joint Implants, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 27, pp. 3460–3471.

Babu, P.V., Ismail, S., Ben, B.S., 2021, Experimental and numerical studies of positive texture effect on friction reduction of sliding contact under mixed lubrication, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 235, pp. 360–375.

Hu, T., Hu, L., Ding, Q., 2012, The effect of laser surface texturing on the tribological behavior of Ti-6Al-4V, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 226, pp. 854–863.

Shi, X., Zeng, W., Sun, Y., Han, Y., Zhao, Y., Guo, P., 2015, Microstructure-Tensile Properties Correlation for the Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 24, pp. 1754–1762.

Ju, J., Zhou, Y., Wang, K., Liu, Y., Li, J., Kang, M., Wang, J., 2020, Tribological investigation of additive manufacturing medical Ti6Al4V alloys against Al2O3 ceramic balls in artificial saliva, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 104, 103602.

Turek, P., 2022, Evaluation of the auto surfacing methods to create a surface body of the mandible model, Reports in Mechanical Engineering, 3(1), pp. 46–54.

Montgomery S, Kennedy D, O'Dowd N., 2009, Analysis of Wear Models for Advanced Coated Materials, Matrib: International Conference on Materials, Tribology, Recycling, Croatia, 2009, pp. 1-9.

Carpinteri, A., Pugno, N., 2004, Evolutionary fractal theory of erosion and experimental assessment on MIR space station, Wear, 257, pp. 408–413.

Ribeiro-Carvalho, S., Pereira, R., Horovistiz, A., Davim, J.P., 2021, Intelligent machining methods for Ti6Al4V: A review, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, 235, pp. 1188–1210.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 0354-2025 (Print)

ISSN: 2335-0164 (Online)

COBISS.SR-ID 98732551

ZDB-ID: 2766459-4