Abdelsalam Abdelhussien, Guolai Yang, Emad Kamil Hussein, Lei Li, Hamid Al-Abboodi, Barhm Mohamad

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Composites with fiber reinforcement are often a popular lightweight option. Due to their unique qualities, fiber-reinforced composites are the best alternative to traditional materials. Mechanical parameters of a carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy resin (CFRE) composite reinforced with date seed granulated powder (DSGP) were examined at the room temperature. The mechanical qualities included tensile, flexural, and impact strength. Enhanced mechanical properties were noticed compared to carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite produced using the hand lay-up method and vacuum bag. The DSGP-reinforced CFRE with weight ratios of 0%, 15%, 25%, and 35% were considered. The test results revealed the maximum values of breaking force, maximum bending force, energy absorption capacity, and hardness number for 15%, 35%, 25%, 25% Wt DSGP samples. The results show that the optimal composition for carbon fiber reinforced epoxy with date seed granules is in the range from 15% to 25% wt. GDS. This study reveals that carbon fiber-date seed-reinforced composites are excellent substitutes for carbon fiber composites since they offer better mechanical properties at a lower cost.


Mechanical properties, Maximum bending force, Energy absorption capacity, Reinforced epoxy, Seed-reinforced composites

Full Text:



Sharma, B., Sunita, S., Tahir, M., Gaur, P., Muthukumar, C., Lohchab, D.S., Kumar, R.R., 2022, Effect of Nanosilica and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical and Impact Performance of Unidirectional Kevlar/Epoxy Based Composites, In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2022, IOP Publishing.

Verma, D., Gope, P.C., Maheshwaril, M.K., Sharma, R.K., 2012, Bagasse fiber composites-A review, J. Mater. Environ. Sci., 3(6), pp. 1079-1092.

Nagavally, R.R., 2017, Composite materials-history, types, fabrication techniques, advantages, and applications, Int. J. Mech. Prod. Eng., 5(9), pp. 82-87.

Mittal, G., Rhee, K.Y., Miskovic-Stankovic, V., Hui, D., 2018, Reinforcements in multi-scale polymer composites: Processing, properties, and applications, Composites Part B: Engineering, 138, pp. 122-139.

Bazan, P., Nosal, P., Wierzbicka-Miernik, A., Kuciel, S., 2021, A novel hybrid composites based on biopolyamide 10.10 with basalt/aramid fibers: Mechanical and thermal investigation, Composites Part B: Engineering, 223, 109125.

Chen, F.-M., Liu, X., 2016, Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering, Progress in polymer science, 53, pp. 86-168.

Avinash, A.S. Asirjebaraj, K., Natrayan, L., Yogeshwaran, S., 2020, Evaluation on mechanical properties of basalt fiber-E glass reinforced polymer composite, Test Engineering and Management, 83, pp. 14222-14227.

Ertan, R., 2016, The Effect of Fabrication Processes and Material Combinations on the Mechanical Properties of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites, In Proceedings of the IRES International Conference, Barcelona, 2016.

Muralidhara, B., Babu, S.K., Bheemapaa, S., 2020, Utilizing vacuum bagging process to prepare carbon fiber/epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties, Materials Today: Proceedings, 27, pp. 2022-2028.

Feraboli, P., Masini, A., 2004, Development of carbon/epoxy structural components for a high performance vehicle, Composites Part B: Engineering, 35(4), pp. 323-330.

Fouda, H., Guo, L., Elsharkawy. K., Preparation and characterizations of composite material based on carbon Fiber and two thermoset resins, In MATEC Web of Conferences, 2017, EDP Sciences.

Hernandez, D.A., Soufen, C.A., Orlandi, M.O., 2017, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer and epoxy adhesive tensile test failure analysis using scanning electron microscopy, Materials Research, 20, pp. 951-961.

Grunenfelder, L.K., Dills, A., Centea, T., Nutt, S., 2017, Effect of prepreg format on defect control in out-of-autoclave processing, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 93, pp. 88-99.

Xu, X., Wang, X., Cai, Q., Wang, X., Wei, R., Du, S., 2016, Improvement of the compressive strength of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via microwave curing, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 32(3), pp. 226-232.

Ma, Y., Ueda, M., Yokozeki, T., Sugahara, T., Yang, Y., Hamada, H., 2017, Investigation of the flexural properties and failure behavior of unidirectional CF/nylon 6 and CF/epoxy composites, Open Journal of Composite Materials, 7(4), pp. 227-249.

Boccardi, S., Meola, C., Carlomagno, G.M., Sorrentino, L., Simeoli, G., Russo, P., 2016, Effects of interface strength gradation on impact damage mechanisms in polypropylene/woven glass fabric composites, Composites Part B: Engineering, 90, pp. 179-187.

Ma, Y., Ueda, M., Yokozeki, T., Sugahara, T., Yang, Y., Hamada, H., 2017, A comparative study of the mechanical properties and failure behavior of carbon fiber/epoxy and carbon fiber/polyamide 6 unidirectional composites, Composite Structures, 160, pp. 89-99.

Peters, S.T., 2013, Handbook of composites, Springer Science & Business Media.

Mohanty, A., Srivastava, V.K., 2015, Effect of alumina nanoparticles on the enhancement of impact and flexural properties of the short glass/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy based composites, Fibers and Polymers, 16(1), pp. 188-195.

Nayak, R.K., Dash, A., Ray, B.C., 2014, Effect of epoxy modifiers (Al2O3/SiO2/TiO2) on mechanical performance of epoxy/glass fiber hybrid composites, Procedia materials science, 6, pp. 1359-1364.

Wang, X., Xu, T., De Anderade, M.J., Rampalli, I., Cao, D., Haque, M., Roy, S., Baughman, R., Lu, H., 2021, The interfacial shear strength of carbon nanotube sheet modified carbon fiber composites, In Challenges in Mechanics of Time Dependent Materials, Volume 2: Proceedings of the 2020 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Springer.

Sofocleous, K., Drakonakis, V.M., Ogin, S.L., Doumanidis, C., 2017, The influence of carbon nanotubes and shape memory alloy wires to controlled impact resistance of polymer composites, Journal of Composite Materials, 51(2), pp. 273-285.

Sanyang, M.L., Sapuan, S.M., Jawaid, M., Ishak, M.R., Sahari, J., 2016, Recent developments in sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) based biocomposites and their potential industrial applications: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54, pp. 533-549.

Fan, M., Fu, F., 2017, Introduction: A perspective – natural fibre composites in construction, in Advanced high strength natural fibre composites in construction, Elsevier. pp. 1-20.

Fragassa, C., 2017, Marine applications of natural fibre-reinforced composites: A manufacturing case study, in: Pelicer, E., Nikolic, D., Sort, J., Baró, M.D., Zivic, F., Grujovic, N., Grujic, R., Pelemis, S., (Eds.), Advances in Applications of Industrial Biomaterials, Springer, pp. 21-47.

Makkawi, Y., El Sayed, Y., Salih, M., Nancarrow, P., Banks, S., Bridgwater, T., 2019, Fast pyrolysis of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) waste in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor, Renewable energy, 143, pp. 719-730.

Bharathiraja, B., Sudharsana, T., Jayamuthunai, J., Praveenkumar, R., Chozhavendhan, S., Iyyappan, J., 2018, Biogas production–A review on composition, fuel properties, feed stock and principles of anaerobic digestion, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 90, pp. 570-582.

Beltrán-Ramírez, F., Orona-Tamayo, D., Cornejo-Corona, I., González-Cervantes, J.L.N., Esparza-Claudio, J.J., Quintana-Rodríguez, E., 2019, Agro-industrial waste revalorization: the growing biorefinery, In El-Fatah Abomohra, A., (Ed.), Biomass for Bioenergy, pp. 83-102.

Taghizadeh-Alisaraei, A., Motevali, A., Ghobadian, B., 2019, Ethanol production from date wastes: Adapted technologies, challenges, and global potential, Renewable Energy, 143, pp. 1094-1110.

Niazi, S., Khan, I.M., Rasheed, S., Niazi, F., Shoaib, M., Raza, H., Iqbal, M.W., 2017, An overview: Date palm seed coffee, a functional beverage, Int. J. Publ. Health Syst., 2, pp. 18-25.

Wadhwa, M., Bakshi, M., Makkar, H., 2015, Waste to worth: fruit wastes and by-products as animal feed, CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 10, 31.

Alawad, M.N.J., Fattah, K.A., 2019, Superior fracture-seal material using crushed date palm seeds for oil and gas well drilling operations, Journal of King Saud University-Engineering Sciences, 31(1), pp. 97-103.

Adeosun, A.M., Oni, S.O., Ighodaro, O.M., Durosinlorun, O.H., Oyedele, O.M., 2016, Phytochemical, minerals and free radical scavenging profiles of Phoenix dactilyfera L. seed extract, Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 11(1), pp. 1-6.

Onyibo, E.C., Safaei, B., 2022, Application of finite element analysis to honeycomb sandwich structures: a review, Reports in Mechanical Engineering, 3(1), pp. 192–209.

Kazemi, M., Saremi, T.G., Saremi, T.G., 2023, Resistance of Cylindrical Sandwich Panels with Aluminum Foam under Blast Loading, Tehnički Vjesnik, 30(3), pp. 765-770.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 0354-2025 (Print)

ISSN: 2335-0164 (Online)

COBISS.SR-ID 98732551

ZDB-ID: 2766459-4