Amandeep Singh Bhui, Gurpreet Singh, Sarabjeet Singh Sidhu, Preetkanwal Singh Bains

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The present study investigates optimal parameters for machining of Ti-6Al-4V using EDM with graphite electrode. Herein, another technique of modifying surface properties and enhancing machining rate using electrical discharge machining (EDM) was developed. In the present study, design of experiment (D.O.E) was developed using the Taguchi’s orthogonal array to examine the effect of the input machining factors on the machining characteristics, and to forecast the optimized EDM parameters in terms of peak current, pulse-on time, pulse-off time and applied gap voltage. Each experiment was performed to obtain a hole of 1mm depth on the workpiece. From the results, it is found that the discharge current has significant influence on material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) followed by other selected parameters, i.e. pulse-on time, pulse-off time. The MRR augmented steeply with the current and was recorded as maximum at 4 Amps. In-vitro bioactivity test was conducted in the simulated body fluid to examine bioactivity confirming a significant apatite growth on the surface treated with ED sparks. The surface and chemical alteration were analyzed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) along with the identification of the substantially enhanced morphology for clinical success.


Electrical Discharge Machining, Material Removal Rate, Surface Roughness, Bioactivity

Full Text:



Bains, P.S., Sidhu, S.S., Payal, H.S., 2016, Study of Magnetic Field Assisted ED Machining of Metal Matrix Composites, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 31(14), pp.1889-1894.

Mahajan, A., Sidhu, S.S., 2018, Enhancing biocompatibility of Co-Cr alloy implants via electrical discharge process, Materials Technology, 33(8), pp. 531-534.

Bains, P.S., Sidhu, S.S., Payal, H.S., Kaur, S., 2018, Magnetic Field Influence on Surface Modifications in Powder Mixed EDM, Silicon, doi:10.1007/s12633-018-9907-z.

Singh, P., Pungotra, H., Kalsi, N.S., 2017, On the characteristic of titanium alloys for the aircraft applications, Materials today: proceedings, 4(8), pp. 8971-8982.

Uwais, Z.A., Hussein, M.A., Samad, M.A., Al-Aqeeli, N., 2017, Surface modification of metallic biomaterials for better tribological properties: A review, Arabian Journal of Science and Engineering, 42(11), pp. 4493-4512.

Manam, N.S., Harun, W.S.W., Shri, D.N.A., Ghani, S.A.C., Kurniawan, T., Ismail, M.H., Ibrahim, M.H.I., 2017, Study of corrosion in biocompatible metals for implants: A review, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 701, pp. 698-715.

Verma, V., Sahu, R., 2017, Process parameter optimization of die-sinking EDM on Titanium grade-V alloy (Ti6Al4V) using full factorial design approach, Materials today: proceedings, 4(2), pp. 1893-1899.

Kumar, R., Roy, S., Gunjan, P., Sahoo, A., Sarkar, D.D., Das, R.K., 2018, Analysis of MRR and Surface Roughness in Machining Ti-6Al-4V ELI Titanium Alloy Using EDM Process, Procedia Manufacturing, 20, pp. 358-364.

Peng, P.W., Ou, K.L., Lin, H.C., Pan, Y.N., Wang, C.H., 2010, Effect of electrical discharging on formation of nanoporous biocompatible layer on titanium, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 492(1-2), pp. 625-630.

Lee, W.F., Yang, T.S., Wu, Y.C., Peng, P.W., 2013, Nanoporous Biocompatible Layer on Ti6Al4V Alloys Enhanced Osteoblast-like Cell Response, Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 5(3), pp. 92-96.

Prakash, C., Kansal, H.K., Pabla, B.S., Puri, S., Aggarwal, A., 2015, Electric discharge machining-A potential choice for surface modification of metallic implants for orthopedic applications: A review, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 230(2), pp. 331-353.

Ayesta, I., Izquierdo, B., Sanchez, J.A., Ramos, J.M., Plaza, S., Pombo, I., Ortege, N., Bravo, H., Fradejas, R., Zamakona, I., 2013, Influence of EDM parameters on slot machining in C1023 aeronautical alloy, Procedia CIRP, 6, pp. 129-134.

Ristic, M., Manic, M., Misic, D., Kosanovic, M., Mitkovic, M., 2017, Implant material selection using expert system, Facta Universitatis-Series Mechanical Engineering, 15(1), pp. 133-144.

Das, M.K., Kumar, K., Barman, T.K., Sahoo, P., 2014, Application of artificial bee colony algorithm for optimization of MRR and surface roughness in EDM of EN31 tool steel, Procedia Material Science, 6, pp. 741-751.

Mahajan, A., Sidhu, S.S., 2017, Surface modification of metallic biomaterials for enhanced functionality: A Review, Materials Technology, 33(2), pp. 93-105.

Torres, A., Luis, C.J., Puertas, I., 2017, EDM machinability and surface roughness analysis of TiB2 using copper electrodes, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 690, pp. 337-347.

Harcuba, P., Bacakova, L., Strasky, J., Bacakova, M., Novotna, K., Janecek, M., 2012, Surface treatment by electric discharge machining of Ti–6Al–4V alloy for potential application in orthopaedics, Journal of the mechanical behaviour of biomedical materials, 7, pp. 96-105.

Prakash, C., Singh, S., Verma, K., Sidhu, S.S., Singh, S., 2018, Synthesis and characterization of Mg-Zn-Mn-HA composite by spark plasma sintering process for orthopedic applications, Vacuum, 155, pp. 578-584.

Jenko, M., Gorensek, M., Godec, M., Hodnik, M., Batic, B.S., Donik, C., Grant, J.T., Dolinar, D., 2018, Surface chemistry and microstructure of metallic biomaterials for hip and knee endoprostheses, Applied Surface Science, 427, pp. 584-593.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/FUME180824033B


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 0354-2025 (Print)

ISSN: 2335-0164 (Online)

COBISS.SR-ID 98732551

ZDB-ID: 2766459-4