Sanjoy Biswas, Achintya Mukhopadhyay

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The present study aims at investigating effectiveness of the quadruple (early-pilot-main-after [epMa]) injection strategy over three different triple [early-main-after (eMa), early-pilot-main (epM) and pilot-main-after (pMa)] injection scheduling in terms of emissions, performance [brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), torque, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and fuel economy] and noise. The experimentation was carried out on a heavy-duty BS-IV diesel engine with 45% EGR fraction and fixed main injection (Crank-angle) scheduling at eight different RPMs and three loads of engine (20%, 60% and 100%) using design of experiments(DOE).

     This comprehensive study showed that the quadruple injection strategy provides optimum results in both performance and emissions compared to the promising three triple injection strategy. The quadruple injection strategy exhibits the best BTE at all operating conditions and best BSFC at medium to high-speed zone around 0.5–1% inline to reduce combustion noise (CN) level, especially at low speeds and low to medium load of 0.2–2.2 dBA. Among triple injections, the pMa shows the best performance in BSFC, BTE, smoke and THC emissions. The epM is the best in the CO emissions and torque performance in the low-speed zone. Smoke value is marginally higher for the epMa at low to medium speed than the pMa, although average smoke emissions were the best. Taken together, the overall PM emission level was marginally better than Triple Injections, due to the impact of double pilots in combination with post-injection. In addition, NOx emissions were improved (around 3–6%) significantly with quadruple than with triple injections. The epMa injection scheduling also showed improvement in constant speed fuel economy and in pass-by-noise at the vehicle.


Quadruple Injections, Emission, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, Pass-by-noise, Constant Speed Fuel Economy, Brake Thermal Efficiency

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