Jacek Tomków, Michał Landowski, Grzegorz Rogalski

DOI Number
First page
Last page


In this paper, the application possibilities of the ultra-high strength (UHSS) Domex 960 steel in the underwater welded structures are analyzed. In the research, the investigated material has been tested in bead-on-plate wet welding conditions with the usage of different heat input values, namely 0.63 kJ/mm, 0.72 kJ/mm and 0.93 kJ/mm. Specimens were performed by the manual metal arc (MMA) welding method with the usage of rutile covered electrodes. Firstly, the nondestructive visual testing (VT) was carried out. In the next step, the metallographic macro- and microscopic tests were performed. Finally, the hardness of the weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) was measured by the Vickers HV10 method. The performed experiments allow the statement that the Domex 960 steel could be welded in a water environment. It also showed that increasing heat input leads to decreasing the hardness in HAZ by 30 HV10. It may result in decreasing the susceptibility to cold cracking during butt- and filet welding in the water environment.


Underwater Welding, Ultra-high Strength Steel, Microstructure, Macroscopic Testing, Hardness Measurements, Cold Cracking

Full Text:



Sun, K., Hu, Y., Shi, Y., Liao, B., 2020, Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of underwater dry welded metal of high strength steel Q690E under different water depths, Polish Maritime Research, 27, pp. 112-119.

Cheng, Q., Guo, N., Fu, Y., Zhang, D., Wang, G., Yu, M., 2021, Underwater wire-feed laser deposition of thin-Walled tubular structure of aluminum alloy, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 67, pp. 56-62.

Cui, S., Xian, Z., Shi, Y., Liao, B., Zhu, T., 2019, Microstructure and impact toughness of local-dry keyhole Tungsten Inert Gas welded joints, Materials, 12(10), 1638

Tomków, J., Janeczek, A., Rogalski, G., Wolski, A., 2020, Underwater local cavity welding of S460N steel, Materials, 13(23), 5535.

Surojo, E., Aji, R.P., Triyono, T., Budiana, E.P., Prabowo, A.R., 2021, Mechanical and microstructure properties of A36 marine steel subjected to underwater wet welding, Metals, 11(7), 999.

Klett, J., Mattos, I.B.F., Maier, H.J., Silva, R.H.G., Hassel, T., 2020, Control of the diffusible hydrogen content in different steel phases through the targeted use of different welding consumables in underwater wet welding, Materials and Corrosion, 72, pp. 504-516.

Łabanowski, J., Prokop-Strzelczyńska, K., Rogalski, G., Fydrych, D., 2016, The effect of wet underwater welding on cold cracking susceptibility of duplex stainless steel, Advances in Materials Science, 16(2), pp. 68-77.

Xing, C., Jia, C., Han, Y., Dong, S., Yang, J., Wu, C., 2020, Numerical analysis of the metal transfer and welding arc behaviors in underwater flux-cored arc welding, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 153, 119570.

Wu, J., Han, Y., Jia, C., Wu, C., Yang, Q., 2020, Underwater pulse-current FCAW – part 2: Bubble behaviors and waveform optimization, Welding Journal, 99, pp. 303-311.

Parshin, S.G., 2021, Underwater wet FCA-welding of high-strength steel X70 through the use of flux-cored electrode, Welding International, 34, pp. 24-28.

Tomków, J., 2021, Weldability of underwater wet-welded HSLA steel: Effect of electrode hydrophobic coatings, Materials, 14(6), 1364.

Xu, C., Guo, N., Zhang, X., Chen, H., Fu, Y., Zhou, L., 2020, Internal characteristic of droplet and its influence on the underwater wet welding process stability, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 280, 116593.

Wang, J., Sun, Q., Zhang, T., Tao, X., Jin, P., Feng, J., 2019, Arc stability indexes evolution of ultrasonic wave-assisted underwater FCAW using electrical signal, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 103, pp. 2593-2608.

Parshin, S.G., Levchenko, A.M., Maystro, A.S., 2020, Metallurgical morel of diffusible hydrogen and non-metallic slag inclusions in underwater wet welding of high-strength steel, Metals, 10(11), 1498.

Park, H., Moon, B., Moon, Y., Kang, N., 2021, Hydrogen stress cracking behavior in dissimilar welded joints of duplex stainless steel and carbon steel, Metals, 11(7), 1039.

Fydrych, D., Łabanowski, J., 2015, An experimental study of high-hydrogen welding process, Revista de Metalurgia, 51(4), e055.

Klett, J., Wolf, T., Maier, H.J., Hassel, T., 2020, The applicability of the standard DIN EN SO 3690 for the analysis of diffusible hydrogen content in underwater wet welding, Materials, 13(17), 3750.

Zavdoveev, A., Rogante, M., Poznyakov, V., Heaton, M., Acquier, P., Km, H.S., Baudin, T., Kostin, V., 2020, Development of the PC-GMAW welding technology for TMCP steel in accordance with welding thermal cycle, welding technique, structure, and properties of welded joints, Reports in Mechanical Engineering, 1(1), pp. 26-33.

Fydrych, D., Łabanowski, J., Rogalski, G., Haras, J., Tomków, J., Świerczyńska, A., Jakóbczak, P., Kostro, Ł., 2014, Weldability of S500MC steel in underwater conditions, Advances in Materials Science, 14(2), pp. 37-45.

Tomków, J., Janeczek, A., 2020, Underwater in situ local heat treatment by additional stitches for improving the weldability of steel, Applied Sciences, 10(5), 1823.

Adumane, S., Khan, G., Adedigba, S., Zendehboudi, S., 2021, Offshore system safety and reliability considering microbial influenced multiple failure modes and their interdependencies, Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 215, 107862.

Ali, L., Khan, S., Bashaml, S., Iqbal, N., Dai, W., Bai, Y., 2021, Fatigue crack monitoring of T-type joints in steel offshore oil and gas jacket platform, Sensors, 21(9), 3294.

Carpenter, K.R., Dissanayaka, P., Sterjovski, Z., Li, H., Donato, J., Gazder, A.A., van Duin, S., Miller, D., Johansson, M., 2021, The effects of multiple repair welds on a quenched and tempered steel for naval vessel, Welding in the World.

Qiang, X., Bijlaard, F.S.K., Kolstein, H., 2013, Post-fire performance of very high strength steel S960, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 80, pp. 235-242.

Mician, M., Winczek, J., Harmaniak, D., Konar, T., Gucwa, M., Moravec, J., 2021, Physical simulation of individual heat-affected zones in S960MC steel, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 66(1), pp. 81-89.

Guo, W., Li, L., Dong, S., Crowther, D., Thompson, A., 2017, Comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of ultra-narrow gap laser and gas-metal-arc welded S960 high strength steel, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 91, pp. 1-15.

Ghafouri, M., Ahn, J., Mourujarvi, J., Bjork, T., Larkiola, J., 2020, Finite element simulation of welding distortions in ultra-high strength steel S960 MC including comprehensive thermal and solid-state phase transformation models, Engineering Structures, 219, 1100804.

Su, A., Liang, Y., Zhao, O., 2021, Experimental and numerical studies of S960 ultra-high strength steel welded I-section columns, Thin-Walled Structures, 159, 107166.

Sasikumar, A., Gopi, S., Mohan, D.G., 2021, Effect of welding speed on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance rates of filler induced friction stir welded AA6082 and AA5052 joints, Materials Research Express, 8, 066531.

Balamurugan, M., Gopi, S., Mohan, D.G., 2021, Influence of tool pin profiles on the filler added friction stir spot welded dissimilar aluminium alloy joint, Materials Research Express, 8, 096531.

Mician, M., Harmaniak, D., Novy, F., Winczek, J., Moravec, J., Trsko, L., 2020, Effect of the t8/5 cooling time on the properties of S960MC steel in the HAZ of welded joints evaluated by thermal physical simulations, Metals, 10(2), 229.

Szymczak, T., Szczucka-Lasota, B., Węgrzyn, T., Łazarz, B., Jurek, A., 2021, Behavior of weld to S960MC high strength steel from joining process at micro-jet cooling with critical parameters under static and fatigue loading, Materials, 14(11), 2707.

Schaupp, T., Rhode, M., Yahyanoui, H., Kannengieser, T., 2020, Hydrogen-assisted cracking in GMA welding of high-strength structural steels using the modified spray arc process, Welding in the World, 63, pp. 1997-2009.

Schaupp, T., Ernst, W., Spindler, H., Kannengieser, T., 2020, Hydrogen-assisted cracking of GMA welded 960 MPa grade high-strength steels, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 45(38), pp. 20080-20093.

Schaupp, T., Schroeder, N., Schroepfer, D., Kannengiesser, T., 2021, Hydrogen-assisted cracking in GMA welding of high-strength structural steel – a new look into this issue at narrow groove, Metals, 11(6), 904.

Wang, J., Sun, Q., Ma, J., Jin, P., Sun, T., Feng, J., 2016, Correlation between wire feed speed and external mechanical constraint for enhanced process stability in underwater wet flux-cored arc welding, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 233(6), pp. 1-13.

Tomków, J., Świerczyńska, A., Landowski, M., Wolski, A., Rogalski, G., 2021, Bead-on-plate underwater wet welding of S700MC steel, Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal, 15(3), pp. 288-296.

Tomków, J., Sobota, K., Krajewski, S., 2020, Influence of tack welds distribution and welding sequence on the angular distortion of TIG welded joint, Facta Universitatis-Series Mechanical Engineering, 18(4), pp. 611-621.

Kurc-Lisiecka, A., Lisiecki, A., 2017, Laser welding of the new grade of advanced high-strength steel Domex 960, Materiali in Tehnologije/Materials and Technology, 51(2), pp. 199-204.

Wang, J., Ma, J., Liu, Y., Zhang, T., Wu, S., Sun, Q., 2020, Influence of heat input on microstructure and corrosion resistance of underwater wet-welded E40 steel joints, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 29, pp. 6987-6995.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 0354-2025 (Print)

ISSN: 2335-0164 (Online)

COBISS.SR-ID 98732551

ZDB-ID: 2766459-4