FORMULA FOR THE WELL-BEING OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS: 3R + 1R

Nikola M. Stojanović, Milica M. Todorovska

DOI Number
10.22190/FUMB170124005S
First page
018
Last page
022

Abstract


Animals were first used for research purposes at the beginning of the development of both biology and medicine. However, the expansion in the use of animals for laboratory purposes began in the 19th century. During an experiment, animals may experience fear, deprivation, disease, and various degrees of pain. Animal Protection activists oppose to animal experiments and it is, therefore, necessary to harmonize the worldwide regulations on the use of animals for scientific purposes. More than 50 years ago, Russell and Burch were the first to define the 3R rule. It consists of the following three principles: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement. Over time, one more R was added to stand for Responsibility, meaning a responsible behavior of those who implement the 3R rule. Replacement means that, if possible, each experimental animal model should be replaced by an in vitro method or be reduced to a smaller number of animals used. Reduction is defined as a reduced number of animals used to obtain certain experimental information, while Refinement is a reduction in the frequency or severity of inhumane procedures applied to animals that have yet to be used. The 3R (+1R) rule has its drawbacks, but it is a very important aspect of animal use regulation, which is essential. These rules are used to direct animal users towards an adequate experimental model, but also to be a reminder of the appropriate use of experimental animals at a given time.


Keywords

experimental animals, ethics in biomedicine, 3R + 1R rule

Full Text:

PDF

References


Flecknell P. Replacement, reduction and refinement. Altex 2002; 19:73–8.

Orlans BF. In the Name of Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Council Directive 86/609/EEC of 24 November 1986 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States regarding the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31986L0609:en:HTML

Gargiulo S, Greco A, Gramanzini M, et al. Anesthesia, analgesia, and care, Part I: anesthetic considerations in preclinical research. ILAR J 2012; 53:E55–69.

Holmes A, Creton S, Chapman K. Working in partnership to advance the 3Rs in toxicity testing. Toxicology 2010; 267:14–19.

Giridharan NV, Kumar V, Muthuswamy V. Use of Animals in Scientific Research. Indian Counc Med Res 2000; 1–27.

Mandal J, Parija SC. Ethics of involving animals in research. Trop Parasitol 2013; 3:4–6.

Austin JC. Guidelines for Ethics in Medicinal Research: Use of Animals in Research and Trainig. South African Medical Council, 2004.

Wallace J, Sanford J, Smith MW, Spencer KV. The assessment and control of the severity of scientific procedures on laboratory animals. Laboratory Animals 1990; 24:97–130.

Radulović N, Blagojević P, Ranđelović P, Stojanović N. The Last Decade of Antinociceptive Alkaloids: Structure, Synthesis, Mechanism of Action and Prospect. Curr Top Med Chem 2013; 13:2134–2170.

Inglis JK. Introduction to laboratory animal science and technology. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1980.

World Health Organization and International Council for Laboratory Animal Science. Guidelines for Breeding and Care of Laboratory Animals, 1993.

Olfert ED, Cross MB, McWilliam AA. Guide to the care and use of experimental animals. Canadian Council on Animal Care, 1993.

Čl. 1. Zakon o dobrobiti životinja, „Službeni glasnik RS“, br. 41/2009.

Čl. 5. st. 1. tačka 30, Zakon o dobrobiti životinja, „Službeni glasnik RS“, br. 41/2009.

Čl. 138. st. 5. Zakon o veterinarstvu, „Službeni glasnik RS“, br. 91/2005 i 30/2010.

Batrićević A. Etički i pravni okviri za zaštitu dobrobiti eksperimentalnih životinja u Republici Srbiji. Glasnik Advokatske komore Vojvodine 2012; 11:726–751.

Russell WMS, Burch RL. The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. London, 1959.

Vučinić M. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection. Vet glas 2007; 61:173–181.

Madden JC, Hewitt M, Przybylak K, Vandebriel RJ, Piersma AH, Cronin MT. Strategies for the optimisation of in vivo experiments in accordance with the 3Rs philosophy. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2012; 63:140–54.

Graham ML, Prescott MJ. The multifactorial role of the 3Rs in shifting the harm-benefit analysis in animal models of disease. Eur J Pharmacol 2015; 759:19–29.

Annys E, Billington R, Clayton R, et al. Advancing the 3Rs in regulatory toxicology – Carcinogenicity testing: Scope for harmonisation and advancing the 3Rs in regulated sectors of the European Union. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2014; 69:234–242.

Hakkinen PJ, Green DK. Alternatives to animal testing: Information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web. Toxicology 2002; 173:3–11.

Tannenbaum J, Bennett B. T. Russell and Burch's 3Rs Then and Now: The Need for Clarity in Definition and Purpose. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2015; 54:120–132.

Russell WMS, Burch RL. The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. 2nd ed. London: Methuen UFAW, 1992.

Ormandy EH, Weary DM, Griffin G. Public views on the use of animals in science. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Symposium. York, UK, June 30, 2010.

Hagelin J, Hau J, Clarsson HE. The refining influence of ethics committees on animal experimentation in Sweden, Lab Anim 2003; 1:10–18.

Sanders FK. Tissue Cultures as Substitutes for Experimental Animals. Coll Papers Lab Animals Bur 1957; 6:35–44.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/FUMB170124005S

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 0354-2017 (Print)

ISSN 2406-0526  (Online)