Slobodan Davinić, Ivana Davinić, Ivan Tasić

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High rates of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic diseases of the kidney are for the most part caused by the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and high rates of fatal cardiovascular events. The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence and distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney diseases, in various stages of chronic renal failure. The examinees were classified into three groups based on the level of glomerular filtration rate: over 60 ml/min/1.73m2; 30-59 ml/min/1.73m2; and 15-29 ml/ min/1.73m2. Traditional risk factors of age, hypertension, systolic blood pressure, glycemia, diabetes, serum level of total cholesterol and triglycerides, triglyceridemia, and hypertrophy  of the left ventricle showed a significantly positive rising trend of their mean values or prevalence, inversely dependent upon the level of declining glomerular filtration rates. Mean values of serum HDL cholesterol level demonstrated a significant declining trend, concomitant with decreasing glomerular filtration rate. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemy, smoking and obesity, as well as the mean value of body mass index, showed significant intergroup variations, but without any continuing trend related to glomerular filtration rate. Non-traditional risk factors of anemia, proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia showed a significant rising trend of prevalence inversely dependent upon the degree of reduction of glomerular filtration rate. The levels of hematocrit and serum albumins showed a positive correlation with the reduction of glomerular filtration rate. In pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney diseases, a high prevalence of the studied cardiovascular risk factors was found. Cardiovascular risk progressively rises with decreasing glomerular filtration rate, being significantly elevated as early as the initial stages of renal failure.


chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular risk, cardiovascular morbidity

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