Leonidas H. Duntas

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Among the various categories of thyroid disruptors, plasticizers, particularly phthalates and bisphenol A and substitutes, are most frequently examined due to their very extensive use and extreme durability. Both experimental and clinical studies have shown the deleterious effects of plasticizers on, among other major organ systems, thyroid physiology and thyroid hormone metabolism. Though the mechanism(s) are not as yet well clarified, it is hypothesized that plasticizers exert a suppressive effect on thyroid function and disrupt thyroid signaling. Similar effects have been reported in wildlife, which is also increasingly exposed to the plastic contamination of both solid and aqueous environments. By presenting the results of several recently published large studies linking plastics to thyroid dysfunction, this review aims to sound the alarm and thus call to action all academic organizations in order to counteract a threat which imperils not only the thyroid and the reproductive system but also the entirety of life on our planet.


thyroid, TSH, phthalates, bisphenol-A, endocrine disruptors, hypothyroidism

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ISSN 0354-2017 (Print)

ISSN 2406-0526  (Online)