PROLACTIN AND HYPERPROLACTINAEMIA IN FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY – AN UPDATE

Ranko M. Kutlešić, Jasmina Popović, Milan Stefanović, Predrag Vukomanović, Jelena Milošević Stevanović, Danka Mostić Stanišić

DOI Number
http://doi.org/10.22190/FUMB200902007K
First page
39
Last page
48

Abstract


Hyperprolactinaemia is one of the most frequent causes of anovulation, resulting in infertility and hypoestrogenic  state with consequences on overall women’s health. Recent investigations on biological actions of prolactin, especially prolactin of extrapituitary origin, expand our knowledge  on prolactin role in the human organism and open new questions connected with female reproductive function and treatment of female infertility. This article represents the review of current knowledge on prolactin physiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical features, assessment , differential diagnosis ,and teatment of hyperprolactinaemia in the female patient.


Keywords

prolactin, hyperprolactinaemia, physiology, female infertility, treatment

Full Text:

PDF

References


Tucker HA. Hormones, mammary growth, and lactation: A 41-year perspective. J Dairy Sci 2000; 83:874–884. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74951-4.e

Riddle O, Bates R, Dyksom S. The preparation, identification and assay of prolactin – a hormone of the anterior pituitary. Am J Physiol 1932; 98:511–546. doi: 10.1152/ajplegacy.1933.105.1.191

Friesen H, Guyda H, Hardy J. Biosynthesis of human growth hormone and prolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1970; 31:611–624. doi: 10.1210/jcem-31-6-611

Lewis UJ, Singh RN, Seavey BK. Human prolactin: Isolation and some properties. Biochem Biophys ResCommun. 1971; 44:1169–1176. doi: 10.1016/S0006-291X(71)80209-7

Freeman ME, Kanyicska B, Lerant A, Nagy G. Prolactin: Structure, function, and regulation of secretion. Physiol Rev. 2000; 80:1523–1631. doi: 10.1152/physrev.2000.80.4.1523

Owerbach D, Rutter WJ, Cooke NE, Martial JA, Shows TB. The prolactin gene is located on chromosome 6 in humans. Science 1981; 212:815–816.

Berwaer M, Martial JA, Davis JR. Characterization of an up-stream promoter directing extrapituitary expression of the human prolactin gene. Mol Endocrinol 1994; 8:635–642.

Keeler C, Dannies PS, Hodsdon E. The tertiary structure and Backbone dynamics of human prolactin. J Molecul Biol 2003; 328: 1105–1121.

Rastrelli G, Corona G, Maggi M. The role of prolactin in andrology: What is new? Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2015; 16:233–248. doi: 10.1007/s11154-015-9322-3.

Grattan DR. 60 years of neuroendocrinology: The hypothalamo-prolactin axis. J Endocrinol 2015; 226:T101–T122. doi: 10.1530/JOE-15-0213.

Kutlešić R, Milosavljević M, Branković D, Lukić B, Janjić Z. Galactorrhoea associated with normal basal PRL levels and nocturnal hyperprolactinaemia. Proceedings XLIII Gynaecological Obstetric week; Gynaecological Obstetric section SLD: Belgrade, 1999. (Serbian)

Capozzi A, Scambia G, Pontecorvi A, Lello S. Hyperprolactinemia: Pathophysiology and therapeutic approach. Gynecol Endocrinol 2015; 31:506–510. doi: 10.3109/09513590.2015.1017810

Tanner MJ, Hadlow NC, Wardrop R. Variation of female prolactin levels with menopausal status and phase of menstrual cycle. Aust N Z J Obs Gynaecol 2011; 51:321–324. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-828X.2011.01321.x

Marano R.J., Ben-Jonathan N. Minireview: Extrapituitary prolactin: an update on the distribution, regulation, and functions. Mol Endocrinol 2014; 28:622–633. doi: 10.1210/me.2013-1349.

Ignacak A, Kasztelnik M, Sliwa T, Korbut RA, Rajda K, Guzik TJ. Prolactin-not only lactotrophin. A “new” view of the “old” hormone. J Physiol Pharm 2012; 63:435–443.

Bole-Feysot C, Goffin V, Edery M, Binart N, Kelly PA. Prolactin (PRL) and its receptor: actions, signal transduction pathways and phenotypes observed in PRL receptor knockout mice. Endocr Rev 1998; 19:225–268.

Harlan RE, Shivers BD, Pfaff DW. Midbrain microinfusions of prolactin increase the estrogen-dependent behavior, lordosis. Science 1983; 219: 1451–1453.

Sodersten P, Hansen S, Eneroth P. Inhibition of sexual behavior in lactating rats. J Endocrinol 1983; 99: 189–197.

Bridges RS, Ronsheim PM. Prolactin (PRL) regulation of maternal behavior in rats: bromocriptine treatment delays and PRL promotes the rapid onset of behavior. Endocrinology 1990; 126:837–848.

Levine S, Muneyyirci-Delale O. Stress-induced hyperprolactinemia: pathophysiology and clinical approach. Obs Gynecol Int 2018; 2018:9253083. doi: 10.1155/2018/9253083

Zaidi M, Sun L, Liu P, et al. Pituitary-bone connection in skeletal regulation. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2016; 28:85–94. doi: 10.1515/hmbci-2016-0015

Leontic EA, Tyson JE. Prolactin and fetal osmoregulation: water transport across isolated human amnion. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 1977; 232: R124-R127.

Mah PM, Webster J. Hyperprolactinemia: etiology, diagnosis, and management. Semin Reprod Med 2002; 20:365–374.

Crowley WR. Neuroendocrine regulation of lactation and milk production. Compr Physiol 2015; 5:255–291. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c140029

Saraç F, Tütüncüoğlu P, Ozgen AG, et al. Prolactin levels and examination with breast ultrasound or mammography. Adv Ther 2008; 25:59–66. doi: 10.1007/s12325-008-0002-5

Jarrell J, Franks S, McInnes R, Gemayel K, Guyda H, Arronet GH, Naftolin F. Breast examination does not elevate serum prolactin. Fertil Steril 1980; 33:49–51. doi: 10.1016/S0015-0282(16)44476-6

Hammond KR, Steinkampf MP, Boots LR, Blackwell RE. The effect of routine breast examination on serum prolactin levels. Fertil Steril 1996; 65:869–870. doi: 10.1016/S0015-0282(16)58229-6

Alvarez-Tutor E, Forga-LLenas L, Rodriguez-Erdozain R, Goñi-Iriarte MJ, Mendendez-Torre E, Alvarez-Tutor J. Persistent increase of PRL after oral contraceptive treatment. Alterations in dopaminergic regulation as possible etiology. Arch Gynecol Obs 1999; 263:45–50. doi: 10.1007/s004040050261.

Banaszewska B, Pawelczyk L, Spaczynski RZ, Dziura J, Duleba A.J. Effects of simvastatin and oral contraceptive agent on polycystic ovary syndrome: Prospective, randomized, crossover trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92:456–461. doi: 10.1210/jc.2006-1988

Mazziotti G, Frara S, Giustina A. Pituitary Diseases and Bone. Endocr Rev 2018; 39:440–488. doi: 10.1210/er.2018-00005

Krysiak R, Drosdzol-Cop A, Skrzypulec-Plinta V, Okopien B. Sexual function and depressive symptoms in young women with elevated macroprolactin content: a pilot study. Endocrine 2016; 53:291e8.

Vance ML, Thorner M. Prolactinoma. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1987; 16:731–754.

Moria Y, Kortbawi R, El-Asmar N, Arafah BM. Increased androgen secretion in patients with prolactinomas: The impact of altered HPA function. Pituitary 2019; 22:170–178. doi: 10.1007/s11102-019-00948-w

Carmina E, Azziz R, Bergfeld W, et al. Female pattern hair loss and androgen excess: A report from the multidisciplinary androgen excess and pcos committee. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019; 104:2875–2891. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-02548

Majumdar A, Mangal NS. Hyperprolactinemia. J Hum Reprod Sci 2013 ;6:168–175. doi: 10.1007/s11102-014-0563-z.

Tirosh A, Benbassat C, Lifshitz A, Shimon I. Hypopituitarism patterns and prevalence among men with macroprolactinomas. Pituitary 2015; 18:108–115.

Isik S, Berker D, Tutuncu YA, et al. Clinical and radiological findings in macroprolactinemia. Endocrine 2012; 41:327e33.

Melmed S, Casanueva FF, Hoffman AR, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96:273–288. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1692

Cejkova P, Cerna M. Immunomodulatory role of prolactin in diabetes development. Autoimmune Rev 2009; 9: 23–27.

Lamos EM, Levitt DL, Munir KM. A review of dopamine agonist therapy in type 2 diabetes and effects on cardio-metabolic parameters. Prim Care Diabetes 2016; 10:60–65. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2015.10.008

Berinder K, Nyström T, Höybye C, Hall K, Hulting AL. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in prolactinoma patients before and after normalization. Pituitary 2011; 14:199–207. doi: 10.1007/s11102-010-0277-9

Yavaz D, Deyneti O, Aksal O, et al. Endothelial function, insulin sensitivity and inflamatory markers in hyperprolactinemic pre-menopausal women. Eur J Endocrinol 2003; 149:187-190.

Georgiopoulos GA, Stamatelopoulos KS, Lambrinoudaki I, et al. Prolactin and preclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension 2009; 54:98–105.

Sartorio A, Conti R, Ambrosi B. Osteocalcin levels in patients with microprolactinoma before and during medical treatment. J Endocrinol Invest 1990; 13:419–422.

Horan KC. The effect of sex hormons on bone metabolism of the otic capsule – an overwiev. Horm Res 2008; 252:56–60.

Vilar L, Abucham J, Albuquerque JL, et al. Controversial issues in the management of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas—An overview by the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Arch Endocrinol Metab 2018; 62:236–263. doi: 10.20945/2359-3997000000032

Kokay IC, Petersen SL, Grattan DR. Identification of prolactin-sensitive GABA and kisspeptin neurons in regions of the rat hypothalamus involved in the control of fertility. Endocrinology 2011; 152:526–535.

Sonigo C, Young J, Binart N. Hyperprolactinémie et infertilité. Approche physiopathologique Med Sci (Paris) 2013; 29:242–244.

Kaiser UB. Hyperprolactinemia and infertility: new insights. J Clin Invest 2012; 122:3467–3468. doi:10.1172/JCI64455

Roa J, Navarro VM, Tena-Sempere M. Kisspeptins in reproductive biology: consensus knowledge and recent developments. Biol Reprod 2011; 85:650–660.

Sonigo C, Bouilly J, Carré N, et al. Hyperprolactinemia-induced ovarian acyclicity is reversed by kisspeptin administration. J Clin Invest 2012; 122:3791–3795. doi: 10.1172/JCI63937.

Gordon CM, Ackerman KE, Berga SL, et al. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017; jc:2017-00131. doi: 10.1210/jc.2017-00131

Szawka RE, Ribeiro AB, Leite CM, et al. Kisspeptin regulates prolactin release through hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons. Endocrinolog 2010; 151:3247–3457.

Araujo-Lopez R, Crampton JR, Aquino NS et al. Prolactin regulates kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus to suppress LH secretion in female rats. Endocrinology 2014; 155:1010–1020. doi: 10.1210/en.2013-1889

Adashi EY, Resnick CE. Prolactin as an inhibitor of granulosa cell luteinization: implications for hyperprolactinemia-associated luteal phase dysfunction. Fertil Steril 1987; 48: 131–139

McNeilly AS, Glasier A, Jonassen J, Howie PW. Evidence for direct inhibition of ovarian function by prolactin. J Reprod Fertil 1982; 65:559–569.

Falaschi P, del Pozo E, Rocco A, et al. Prolactin release in polycystic ovary. Obstet Gynecol.1980; 55:579–582.

Filho RB, Domingues L, Naves L, Ferraz E, Alves A, Casulari LA. Polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperprolactinemia are distinct entities. Gynecol Endocrinol 2007; 23:267–272.

Robin G, Catteau-Jonard S, Young J, Dewailly D. Physiopathological link between polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperprolactinemia: myth or reality? Gynecol Obstet Fertil 2011; 39:141–145.

Lima AP, Moura MD, Rosa e Silva AA. Prolactin and cortisol levels in women with endometriosis. Braz J Med Biol Res 2006; 39:1121–1127.

Cunha-Filho JS, Gross JL, Lemos NA, et al. Hyperprolactinemia and luteal insufficiency in infertile patients with mild and minimal endometriosis. Horm Metab Res 2001; 33:216–220.

Radwanska E, Henig I, Dmowski WP. Nocturnal prolactin levels in infertile women with endometriosis. J Reprod Med 1987; 32:605–608.

Gregorion G, Bakes P, Vitoratos N. Evaluation serum prolactin levels in patients with endometriosis and infertility. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1999; 48:48–51.

Muse K, Wilson EA, Jawal MJ. Prolactin hyperstimulation in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in patients with endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1982; 38:419–422.

Matalliotakis I, Panidis D, Vlassis G, et al. PRL, TSH, and their response to the TRH test in patients with endometriosis before, during and after treatment with Danazol. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1996; 42:183–186.

Arumugam K. Serum prolactin levels in infertile patients with endometriosis. Malays J Pathol 1991; 13:43–45.

Panidis D, Vavilis D, Rousso D, Panidou E, Kalogeropoulos A. Provocative tests of prolactin before, during and after long-term danazol treatment in patients with endometriosis. Gynecol Endocrinol 1992; 6:19–24.

Robert E, Massati L, Piscitelli G, Ferrari CI. Pregnancy outcome after treatment with the ergot derivate, cabergoline. Reprod Toxicol 1996; 10: 533.

Holmgren U. Women with prolactinoma: effect of pregnancy and lactation on serum prolactin and on tumor growth. Acta Endocrinol 1986; 111: 452–453.

Molitch ME, Russell EJ. The pituitary "incidentaloma". An Intern Med 1990; 112: 925–931.

Kupersmith MJ, Rosenberg C, Kleinberg D. Visual loss in pregnant women with pituitary adenomas. Ann Inter Med 1994; 121:473.

Well C. The saffiety of bromocriptine in hyperprolactinemic female infertility; a literature review. Curr Med Res Opin 1986; 10:172–195.

Pittini L, Minisci M. Effecive mannagement of supraselar exeding prolactinoma during pregnancy. Clin Exp Obstet Gyn 1987; 14:152–154.

Yamoda M, Myake A, Koike K. Sponataneous pregnancy after a pregnancy induced by treatment in hyperprolactinemic women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Repr Biol 1990; 35:125–129.

Crosignani PG, Mattei AM, Severini V, Cavioni V, Maggioni P, Testa G. Long-term effects of time, medical treatment and pregnancy in 176 hyperprolactinemic women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1992; 44:175–180.

Jeffcoate WJ, Pound N, Sturrock ND, Lambourne J. Longterm follow-up of patients with hyperprolactinaemia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1996; 45:299–303.

Casanueva FF, Molitch ME, Schlechte JA, et al. Guidelines of the Pituitary Society for the diagnosis and management of prolactinomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2006; 65:265–273.

Mancini T, Casanueva FF, Giustina A. Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2008; 37:67–99. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2007.10.013

Vilar L, Freitas MC, Naves LA, et al. Diagnosis and management of hyperprolactinemia: results of a Brazilian multicenter study with 1234 patients. J Endocrinol Invest 2008; 31:436–-444.

Vilar L, Naves LA, Gadelha MR. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab 2003; 47:347-357.

Molitch ME. Disorders of prolactin secretion. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2001; 30:585–610.

Schofl C, Schofl-Siegert B, Karstens JH, Bremer M, Lenarz T,Cuarezma JS. Falsely low serum prolactin in two cases of invasive macroprolactinomas. Pituitary 2002; 5:261–265.

Hoffman KL, Parsons GH, Allerdt LJ, Brooks JM, Miles LE. Elimination of ‘hook-effect’ in two-site immunoradiometricassays by kinetic rate analysis. Clin Chem 1984; 30:1499–1501.

Vilar L, Fleseriu M, Bronstein MD. Challenges and pitfalls in the diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab 2014; 58:9-22.

Vallette-Kasic S, Morange-Ramos I, Selim A, et al. Macroprolactinemia Revisited: A Study on 106 Patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87:581–588.

Elenkova A, Genov N, Abadzhieva Z, Vasilev V, Kirilov G, Zacharieva S. Macroprolactinemia in patients with prolactinomas: prevalence and clinical significance. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2013; 121:201e5.

Bjoro T, Makrid L, Wergerland R, Turter A, Kvistborg A, Sand T. Frequency of hyperprolactinemia due to large molecular weight prolactin (150-170 kD PRL). Scand J Clin Lab Investig 1995; 55:139e47.

Thirunavakkarasu K, Dutta P, Sridhar S, et al. Macroprolactinemia in hyperprolactinemic infertile women. Endocrine 2013; 44:750–755. doi: 10.1007/s12020-013-9925-y

Kasum M, Pavičić-Baldani D, et al. Importance of macroprolactinemia in hyperprolactinemia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2014; 183:28–32.

Kasum M, Oreskovic S, Čehić E, Šunj M, Albert Lila, Ejubović E. Laboratory and clinical significance of macroprolactinemia in women with hyperprolactinemia. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017; 56:719e-724. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.10.013.

Shimatsu A and Naoki Hattori N. Macroprolactinemia: Diagnostic, Clinical, and Pathogenic Significance. Clin Dev Immunol 2012; 167132. doi: 10.1155/2012/167132

Saleem M., Martin H., Coates P. Prolactin biology and laboratory measurement: an update on physiology and current analytical issues. Clin Biochem Rev 2018; 39:3–16.

Fahie-Wilson M, Smith TP. Determination of prolactin: the macroprolactin problem. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013; 27:725–742. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2013.07.002

Martin TL, Kim M, Malarkey WB. The natural history of idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1985;60(5):855–858.

Rabinovich IH, Cámara Gómez R, García Mouriz M, et al. on behalf of the Neuroendocrinology Group of the SEEN. Clinical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of prolactinoma and hyperprolactinemia. Endocrinol Nutr. 2013; 60:308–319. doi: 10.1016/j.endonu.2012.11.005.

De Bellis A, Colao A, Pivonello R, et al. Antipituitary antibodies in idiopathic hyperprolactinemic patients. Ann NY Acad Sci 2007; 1107:129–135.

Chang S, Copperman AB. New insights into human prolactin pathophysiology: genomics and beyond. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2019; 31:207–211. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000545.

Raymond JP, Goldstein E, Konopka P, Leleu MF, Merceron RE, Loria Y. Follow-up of children born of bromocriptine-treated mothers. Horm Res 1985; 22:239–246.

Wang AT, Mullan RJ, Lane MA, et al. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev 2012; 1:33. doi: 10.1186/2046-4053-1-33

dos Santos Nunes V, El Dib R, Boguszewski CL, Nogueira CR. Cabergoline versus bromocriptine in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis. Pituitary 2011; 14:259–265.doi: 10.1007/s11102-010-0290-z.

Ricci E, Parazzini F, Motta T, et al. Pregnancy outcome after cabergoline treatment in early weeks of gestation. Reprod Toxicol 2002; 16:791–793.

Stalldecker G, Mallea-Gil MS, Guitelman M, et al. Effects of cabergoline on pregnancy and embryo-fetal development: retrospective study on 103 pregnancies and a review of the literature. Pituitary 2010; 13:345–350. doi: 10.1007/s11102-010-0243-6

Colao A, Abs R, Bárcena DG et al., Chanson P, Paulus W, Kleinberg DL. Pregnancy outcomes following cabergoline treatment: extended results from a 12-year observational study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008; 68:66–71.

Herring N, Szmigielski C, Becher H, Karavitaki N, Wass JAH. Valvular heart disease and the use of cabergoline for the treatment of prolactinoma. Clin Endocrinol 2009; 70:104–108.

Webster J, Piscitelli G, Polli A, Ferrari CI, Ismail I, Scanlon MF. A comparison of cabergoline and bromocriptine in the treatment of hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea. Cabergoline Comparative Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994; 331:904–909.

Löndahl M, Nilsson A, Lindgren H, Katzman P. A case of constrictive pericarditis during cabergoline treatment for hyperprolactinaemia. Eur J Endocrinol 2008; 158:583–585. doi: 10.1530/EJE-07-0584.

Colao A. Pituitary tumours: the prolactinoma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 23:575–596.

Rasmussen C, Brownell J, Bergh T. Clinical response and prolactin concentration in hyperprolactinemic women during and after treatment for 24 months with the new dopamine agonist, CV 205-502. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1991; 125(2):170–176

Di Sarno A, Landi ML, Marzullo P, et al. The effect of quinqgolide and cabergoline, two selective dopamine receptor type 2 agonists in the treatment of prolactinomas. Clin Endocrinol 2000; 53(1):53–60.

Berinder K, Stackenäs I, Akre O, Hirschberg AL, Hulting AL. Hyperprolactinaemia in 271 women: up to three decades of clinical follow-up. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2005; 63:450–455.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/FUMB200902007K

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 0354-2017 (Print)

ISSN 2406-0526  (Online)