Stefan Đorić

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Social exclusion is an unpleasant experience and represents an integral part of everyday social interaction. Its consequences are reflected in altered thoughts, emotions and behavior. Long-term negative consequences have been noted as well, such as reduced subjective well-being and poor mental health. Social exclusion is also known to have repercussions on cognitive processes, specifically on perception, although the results in this area are somewhat contradictory. It has been observed that excluded persons show preserved or even increased sensitivity to social cues, especially those that signal the possibility of reconnection (e.g., smile). On the other hand, it has been noticed that social exclusion can have a negative effect in this context, making the perception of social cues inaccurate, "distorted". The aim of this study was to examine how the experienced social exclusion affects the perception of trustworthiness, specifically, the ability to make a distinction between trustworthy and untrustworthy faces. Between subject design 2 (Social rejection: excluded vs. included) x 2 (Trustworthiness: trustworthy vs. untrustworthy) was used, with the level of attributed trustworthiness as a dependent variable. The sample consisted of 120 first- and second-year psychology students. The results showed that excluded participants attributed significantly different levels of trustworthiness to trustworthy and untrustworthy faces, which may indicate that they have preserved or even enhanced sensitivity in social perception. The obtained results were discussed in accordance with the existing theoretical assumptions.


Social exclusion, social rejection, ostracism, trustworthiness perception

Full Text:



Balliet, Daniel, Joshua M. Tybur, Junhui Wu, Christian Antonellis, and Paul A. M. Van Lange. “Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation: In-group Favoritism among Republicans and Democrats during a US National Election”. Journal of Conflict Resolution 62, 4 (2018): 797–818.

Bernstein, Michael J., Steven G. Young, Christina M. Brown, Donald F. Sacco, and Heather M. Claypool. “Adaptive Responses to Social Exclusion: Social Rejection Improves Detection of Real and Fake Smiles”. Psychological Science 19, 10 (2008): 981–983.

Blackhart, Ginette C., Brian C. Nelson, Megan L. Knowles, and Roy F. Baumeister. “Rejection Elicits Emotional Reactions but Neither Causes Immediate Distress nor Lowers Self-Esteem: A Meta-Analytic Review of 192 Studies on Social Exclusion”. Personality and Social Psychology 13, 4 (2009): 269–309.

Dewall, Nathan C., Maner, Jon K. and Rouby Aaron D., “Social Exclusion and Early- stage Interpersonal Perception: Selective Attention to Signs of Acceptance.” Journal of personality and social psychology 96, 4 (2009): 729–741. doi:10.1037/a0014634

Leary, Mark R., Jean M. Twenge, and Erin Quinlivan. “Interpersonal Rejection as a Determinant of Anger and Aggression”. Personality and Social Psychology Review 10, 2 (2006): 111–132.

Liddell, Belinda J. and Courtney, Bronte S. “Attachment Buffers the Physiological Impact of Social Exclusion“. PloS one 9. 13 (2018).

Ma, Debbie S., Corell Joshua and Wittenbrink Berndt. “The Chicago face database: A free stimulus set of faces and norming data”. Behavior Research Methods 47, 4 (2015): 1122–1135. doi:10.3758/s13428-014-0532-5

Maner, Jon K., Dewall, Nathan C., Baumeister, Roy F. and Schaller, Mark. “Does Social Exclusion Motivate Interpersonal Reconnection? Resolving the "Porcupine Problem"”. Journal of personality and social psychology 92, 1 (2007): 42–55. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.92.1.42

Oosterhof, Nikolaas N, and Alexander Todorov. “The Functional Basis of Face Evaluation.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 32 (2008): 11087–92. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805664105

Pickett, Cynthia L., Wendi L. Gardner, and Megan Knowles. “Getting a Cue: The Need to Belong and Enhanced Sensitivity to Social Cues”. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30, 9 (2004): 1095–1107.

Rezlescu, Constantin, Duchaine Brad, Olivola Y. Christopher and Chater Nick. “Unfakeable Facial Configurations affect Strategic Choices in Trust Games with or without Information about Past Behavior”. PloS one 7, 3 (2012): e34293. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034293

Rousseau, Denise M., Sim B. Sitkin, Ronald S. Burt and Colin Camerer. “Not So Different After All: A Cross-discipline View of Trust”. Academy of Management Review 23 (1998): 393–404.

Riva, Paolo, Lorenzo Montali, James H. Wirth, Simona Curioni, and Williams D. Kipling. “Chronic Social Exclusion and Evidence for the Resignation Stage: An Empirical Investigation”. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 34, 4 (2017): 541–564.

Syrjämäki, Aleksi H. and Jari K. Hietanen. “The Effects of Social Exclusion on Processing of Social Information – A Cognitive Psychology Perspective”. The British Journal of Social Psychology (2019): 730–748. 10.1111/bjso.12299

Todorov, Alexander, Christopher Y. Olivola, Ron Dotsch and Peter Mende-Siedlecki. “Social Attributions from Faces: Determinants, Consequences, Accuracy, and Functional Significance”. Annual Review of Psychology 66 (2015): 519–545. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143831

Twenge, Jean M., Roy F.Baumeister, Dianne M. Tice, and Tanja S. Stucke. “If You can't Join them, Beat them: Effects of Social Exclusion on Aggressive Behavior”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (2001):1058–1069.

Twenge, Jean M., Catanese Kathleen R. Zhang Liqing, Brenda Dolan-Pascoe, Leif F. Lyche and Roy F. Baumeister. “Replenishing Connectedness: Reminders of Social Activity Reduce Aggression after Social Exclusion”. The British Journal of Social Psychology 46 (2007): 205–224. doi:10.1348/014466605X90793.

Williams, Kipling D. “Chapter 6 Ostracism: A Temporal Need‐Threat Model”. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 41 (2009): 275–314.

Williams, Kipling D. and Steve A. Nida. Ostracism, Exclusion, and Rejection. New York: Routledge, 2016

Williams, Kipling D. and Steve A. Nida. “Ostracism: Consequences and Coping”. Current Directions in Psychological Science 20, 2 (2011): 71–75.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1820-8495 (Print)

ISSN 1820-8509 (Online)