Duško Prelević

DOI Number
First page
Last page


In Announcement of the Programme of his Lectures for the Winter Semester 1765‒1766, Immanuel Kant outlined his views of how philosophical education ought to be conducted. According to him, the method of instruction in philosophy should be zetetic, which means that students should first learn to philosophize rather than (as they typically expect) to learn philosophy, that is, that learning how to think for oneself ought to be preferred over learning particular philosophical systems. Kant argued for this view by claiming that philosophy at his time was not yet a complete discipline, and accordingly, that there was no philosophical book which might be said to contain definite solutions to the main philosophical problems.

Given that the claims above had been stated in 1765, and that later on (in the 1780s and 1790s in particular) Kant thought that he had practically solved (or resolved) all the important philosophical questions, it is interesting to see whether his views of philosophical education remained the same, even more so because at that time he still claimed (for example, in Critique of Pure Reason and according to some transcriptions of his lectures) that his age was the age of critique and therefore it had to be seen what will come of it. I argue in this paper that there are good reasons to believe that Kant's aforementioned claims are compatible and that the continuity of his thoughts on these things can be preserved.


Kant, philosophical education, critique, the age of critique

Full Text:



Ameriks, Karl and Steve Naragon. Translators' Introduction to Lectures on Metaphysics, by Immanuel Kant, xiii‒xliii. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Boswell, Terry. “On the Textual Authenticity of Kant's Logic”. History and Philosophy of Logic 9 (1988): 193‒203.

Forster, Michael. Kant and Skepticism. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2008.

Gonzáles, Ana M. “Kant's Philosophy of Education: Between Relational and Systematic Approaches”. Journal of Philosophy of Education 45 (2011): 433‒454.

Heisenberg, Werner. The Physicist's Conception of Nature. London: Hutchinson Scientific and Technical, 1958.

Kant, Immanuel. Philosophical Correspondence 1759‒99, edited by Arnulf Zweig. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1967.

Kant, Immanuel. “M. Immanuel Kant's Announcement of the Programme of his Lectures for the Winter Semester 1765‒1766 (1765)”. In Immanuel Kant: Theoretical Philosophy, 1755‒1770, edited by David Walford and Ralf Meerbote, 287‒300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992a.

Kant, Immanuel. The Vienna Logic. In Immanuel Kant: Lectures on Logic, edited by J. Michael Young, 251‒377. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1992b.

Kant, Immanuel. The Jäsche Logic. In Immanuel Kant: Lectures on Logic, edited by J. Michael Young, 521‒640. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992c.

Kant, Immanuel. The Conflict of the Faculties (1798). In Immanuel Kant: Religion and Rational Theology, edited by Allen W. Wood and George Di Giobanni, 239‒327. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Kant, Immanuel. “Critique of Practical Reason (1788)”. In Immanuel Kant: Practical Philosophy, edited by Mary J. Gregor, 139‒271. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Kant, Immanuel. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Kant, Immanuel. Lectures on Pedagogy (1803). In I. Kant: Anthropology, History, Education, edited by Günter Zöller and Robert B. Louden, 437‒485. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007a.

Kant, Immanuel. “Dessau 1776”. In I. Kant: Anthropology, History, Education, edited by Günter Zöller and Robert B. Louden, 100‒102. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007b.

Kant, Immanuel. “To the Commonwealth”. In I. Kant: Anthropology, History, Education, edited by Günter Zöller and Robert B. Louden, 102‒104. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007c.

Kant, Immanuel. “Plan and Announcement of a Series of Lectures on Physical Geography with an Appendix Containing a Brief Consideration of the Question: Whether the West Winds in Our Regions Are Moist Because They Travel Over a Great Sea”. In Immanuel Kant: Natural Science, edited by Eric Watkins, 386‒395. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Kuehn, Manfred. Kant: A Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Ladyman, James and Don Ross. Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Magrini, James M. Plato's Socrates, Philosophy and Education. Springer (electronic), 2018.

Mendelssohn, Moses. Morning Hours: Lectures on God's Existence. Dordrecht: Springer, 2011.

Mueller, Laura. “Education, Philosophy, and Morality: Virtue Philosophy in Kant”. Eidos: A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 3 (2019): 114‒137.

Palmquist, Stephen. “The Kantian Grounding of Einstein's Worldview: (I) The Early Influence of Kant's System of Perspectives”. Polish Journal of Philosophy 4 (2010): 45‒64.

Richards, Robert. “Kant and Blumenbach on the Bildungstrieb: A Historical Misunderstanding”. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 31 (2000): 11‒32.

Roth, Klas and Chris Surprenant, eds. Kant and Education: Interpretations and Commentary. New York and London: Routledge, 2012.

Schlicht, Tobias and Albert Newen. “Kant and Cognitive Science Revisited”. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 18 (2015): 87‒113.

Shell, Susan M. “Kant on the Humanities”. In Kant and Education, edited by Klas Roth and Chris W. Surprenant, 193‒213. New York and London: Routledge, 2012.

Shell, Susan M. “Public Reason and Kantian Civic Education, or: Are the Humanities 'Dispensable' and if Not, Why Not?” In Politics and Theology in Kant, edited by Paul Formosa, Avery Goldman and Tatiana Patrone, 92‒109. Cardiff: University of Whales Press, 2014.

Van der Berg, Hein. Kant on Proper Science: Biology in the Critical Philosophy and the Opus postumum. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014.

Zákutná, Sandra. “Kant on Teaching Philosophy and Education in a Cosmopolitan Manner”. In The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress (volume 1), edited by Beatrix Himmelmann and Camilla Serck-Hanssen, 1661‒1666. Berlin / Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2021.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/FUPSPH2201001P


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1820-8495 (Print)

ISSN 1820-8509 (Online)