Danijela Živković, Anđela Đošić, Stefan Mijalković, Saša Pantelić

DOI Number
First page
Last page


As the global population continues to age, understanding and addressing the complex interplay between physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL) among old people is becoming increasingly imperative. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of PA is related to the QoL in elderly men. Using a set of eight variables of PA and four for quality of life assessment, an evaluation of physical activity and quality of life was performed on a sample of 666 senior men (67.37±5.68 years). The level of PA was measured using the IPAQ questionnaire, while the QoL was evaluated by the World Health Organization Questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF). A canonical correlation analysis was conducted to identify any relationships. Statistical significance was set at p< .01. The results showed that statistically significant relationships were found between moderate PA and the Environmental Health domain of QoL (Sig.= .000). Additionally, relationships were found between overall Walking activity, total PA, and Leisure Physical Activity and Physical and Psychological Health, as well as Social Relationships (Sig.= .003). This study confirmed that different domains of PA are related to the quality of life in elderly men.


old men, exercise, physical health, psychological health, quality of life

Full Text:



An, H. Y., Chen, W., Wang, C. W., Yang, H. F., Huang, W. T., & Fan, S. Y. (2020). The relationships between physical activity and life satisfaction and happiness among young, middle-aged, and older adults. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(13), 4817.

Aune, D., Schlesinger, S., Leitzmann, M. F., Tonstad, S., Norat, T., Riboli, E., & Vatten, L. J. (2021). Physical activity and the risk of heart failure: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies. European journal of epidemiology, 36, 367-381.

Bai, X., Soh, K. G., Omar Dev, R. D., Talib, O., Xiao, W., & Cai, H. (2022). Effect of brisk walking on health-related physical fitness balance and life satisfaction among the elderly: a systematic review. Frontiers in public health, 9, 829367.

Battaglia, G., Bellafiore, M., Alesi, M., Paoli, A., Bianco, A., & Palma, A. (2016). Effects of an adapted physical activity program on psychophysical health in elderly women. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 1009-1015.

Baxter, S., Blank, L., Johnson, M., Everson-Hock, E., Woods, H. B., Goyder, E., ... & Mountain, G. (2016). Interventions to promote or maintain physical activity during and after the transition to retirement: an evidence synthesis. Public Health Research, 4(4).

Berlim, M.T., Pavanelllo, D.P., Caldieraro, M.A.K., & Fleck, M.P.A. (2005). Reliability and validity of the WHOQOL BREF in a sample of Brazilian outpatients with major depression. Quality of Life Research, 14(2), 561-564.

Carcelén-Fraile, M. D. C., Lorenzo-Nocino, M. F., Afanador-Restrepo, D. F., Rodriguez-Lopez, C., Aibar-Almazan, A., Hita-Contreras, F., ... & Castellote-Caballero, Y. (2023). Effects of different intervention combined with resistance training on musculoskeletal health in older male adults with sarcopenia: A systematic review. Frontiers in Public Health, 10, 1037464.

Chen, J., Luo, Q., Su, Y., Wang, J., Fang, Z., & Luo, F. (2024). Effects of physical activity on the levels of remnant cholesterol: A population‐based study. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 28(3), e18062.

Chou, C. H., Hwang, C. L., & Wu, Y. T. (2012). Effect of exercise on physical function, daily living activities, and quality of life in the frail older adults: a meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93(2), 237-244.

Christie, B. (2000). Doctors revise declaration of Helsinki. British Medical Journal, 321(7266), 913. Craig, C.L., Marshall, A.L., Sjostrom, M., Bauman, A.E., Booth, M.L., Ainsworth, B.E., Pratt, M., Ekelund, U., Yngve, A., Sallis, J.F. & Oja, P. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(8), 1381-1395.

Currier, D., Lindner, R., Spittal, M. J., Cvetkovski, S., Pirkis, J., & English, D. R. (2020). Physical activity and depression in men: Increased activity duration and intensity associated with lower likelihood of current depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 260, 426-431.

D'Onofrio, G., Kirschner, J., Prather, H., Goldman, D., & Rozanski, A. (2023). Musculoskeletal exercise: Its role in promoting health and longevity. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 77, 25-36.

Fox, K. R., et al. (2007). Physical activity and mental well-being in older people participating in the better ageing project. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 700(5), 591-602.

Franco, M. R., Tong, A., Howard, K., Sherrington, C., Ferreira, P. H., Pinto, R. Z., & Ferreira, M. L. (2015). Older people’s perspectives on participation in physical activity: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(19), 1268–1276.

Granacher, U., Lacroix, A., Muehlbauer, T., Roettger, K., & Gollhofer, A. (2013). Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults. Gerontology, 59(2), 105-113.

Hakman, A. V., Balatska, L. V., & Liasota, T. I. (2016). Effects of recreational and health-enhancing activity on the slowing of the body’s aging. Physical education, sport, and human health, 9, 91-8.

Hall, K. S., Hyde, E. T., Bassett, D. R., Carlson, S. A., Carnethon, M. R., Ekelund, U., ... & Fulton, J. E. (2020). Systematic review of the prospective association of daily step counts with risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, and dysglycemia. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17, 1-14.

Hanestad, B.R., Rustoen, T., Knudsen, O., Lerdal, A., & Wahl, A.K. (2005). Psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire for the Norwegian general population. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 12(2), 147.

Ilić, I., Šipetić-Grujičić, S., Grujičić, J., Živanović Mačužić, I., Kocić, S., & Ilić, M. (2019). Psychometric properties of the world health organization’s quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire in medical students. Medicina, 55(12), 772.

Izquierdo, M., Merchant, R. A., Morley, J. E., Anker, S. D., Aprahamian, I., Arai, H., ... & Singh, M. F. (2021). International exercise recommendations in older adults (ICFSR): expert consensus guidelines. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 25(7), 824-853.

Jurakic, D., Pedisic, Z., & Greblo, Z. (2010). Physical activity in different domains and health-related quality of life: A population-based study. Quality of Life Research, 9(9), 1303-1309.

Kalfoss, M.H., Reidunsdatter, R.J., Klöckner, C.A., & Nilsen, M. (2021). Validation of the WHOQOL-Bref: Psychometric properties and normative data for the Norwegian general population. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 19(1), 1-12.

Kazeminia, M., Salari, N., Vaisi-Raygani, A., Jalali, R., Abdi, A., Mohammadi, M., ... & Shohaimi, S. (2020). The effect of exercise on anxiety in the elderly worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Health and quality of life outcomes, 18, 1-8.

Koltyn, K. (2001). The association between physical activity andquality of life in older women. Womens Health Issues, 11(6), 471-480.

Koolhaas, C. M., Dhana, K., Schoufour, J. D., Ikram, M. A., Kavousi, M., & Franco, O. H. (2017). Impact of physical activity on the association of overweight and obesity with cardiovascular disease: The Rotterdam Study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 24(9), 934-941.

Law, C. K., Lam, F. M., Chung, R. C., & Pang, M. Y. (2020). Physical exercise attenuates cognitive decline and reduces behavioural problems in people with mild cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy, 66(1), 9-18.

Maddalozzo, G. F., & Snow, C. M. (2000). High Intensity Resistance Training: Effects on Bone in Older Men and Women. Calcified Tissue International, 66(6), 399–404. doi:10.1007/s002230010081

Marconcin, P., Werneck, A. O., Peralta, M., Ihle, A., Gouveia, É. R., Ferrari, G., ... & Marques, A. (2022). The association between physical activity and mental health during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review. BMC public health, 22(1), 209.

Marquez, D. X., Aguiñaga, S., Vásquez, P. M., Conroy, D. E., Erickson, K. I., Hillman, C., … Powell, K. E. (2020). A systematic review of physical activity and quality of life and well-being. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 10(5), 1098–1109.

Marselle, M. R., Warber, S. L., & Irvine, K. N. (2019). Growing resilience through interaction with nature: Can group walks in nature buffer the effects of stressful life events on mental health?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(6), 986.

McDowell, I. (2006). Measuring health: a guide to rating scales and questionnaires. Oxford; Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Morie, M., Reid, K. F., Miciek, R., Lajevardi, N., Choong, K., Krasnoff, J. B., ... & LeBrasseur, N. K. (2010). Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58(9), 1727-1733.

Ohaeri, J.U., & Awadalla, A.W. (2009). The reliability and validity of the short version of the WHO Quality of Life Instrument in an Arab general population. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 29(2), 98-104.

Paltasingh, T., & Jena, B. (2021). Life at Sunset Years: Health and Healthcare Need Among Indian Elderly. Ageing issues in India: Practices, perspectives and policies, 347-360.

Papalia, G. F., Papalia, R., Diaz Balzani, L. A., Torre, G., Zampogna, B., Vasta, S., ... & Denaro, V. (2020). The effects of physical exercise on balance and prevention of falls in older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of clinical medicine, 9(8), 2595.

Pataky, M. W., Young, W. F., & Nair, K. S. (2021, March). Hormonal and metabolic changes of aging and the influence of lifestyle modifications. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings 96(3), 788-814 Elsevier.

Pucci, G., Reis, R. S., Rech, C. R., & Hallal, P. C. (2012). Quality of life and physical activity among adults: population-based study in Brazilian adults. Quality of Life Research, 21, 1537-1543.

Schrempft, S., Jackowska, M., Hamer, M., & Steptoe, A. (2019). Associations between social isolation, loneliness, and objective physical activity in older men and women. BMC Public Health, 19, 1-10.

Shabkhiz, F., Khalafi, M., Rosenkranz, S., Karimi, P., & Moghadami, K. (2021). Resistance training attenuates circulating FGF-21 and myostatin and improves insulin resistance in elderly men with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomised controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Sport Science, 21(4), 636-645.

Sinha, B. R. K. (Ed.). (2019). Multidimensional approach to quality of life issues: A spatial analysis. Springer Nature.

Spiteri, K., Broom, D., Bekhet, A. H., De Caro, J. X., Laventure, B., & Grafton, K. (2019). Barriers and motivators of physical activity participation in middle-aged and older adults—a systematic review. Journal of aging and physical activity, 27(6), 929-944.

Stathokostas, L., & Vandervoort, A. A. (2016). The Flexibility Debate: Implications for Health and Function as We Age. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 36(1), 169–192.

Tran, V.D., Do, V.V., Pham, N.M., Nguyen, C.T., Xuong, N.T., Jancey, J., & Lee, A.H. (2020). Validity of the international physical activity questionnaire–short form for application in Asian countries: a study in Vietnam. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 43(2), 105-109.

UNFPA, 2012. Ageing in the Twenty-First Century: A Celebration and A Challenge. In: International, U.N.P.F.U.a.H. (Ed.), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and HelpAge International, New York.

Vagetti GC, Barbosa Filho VC, Moreira NB, Oliveira V, Mazzardo O, Campos W.(2014). Association between physical activity and quality of life in the elderly: a systematic review, 2000-2012. Braz J Psychiatry 36(1):76–88.

Vollset, S. E., Goren, E., Yuan, C. W., Cao, J., Smith, A. E., Hsiao, T., ... & Murray, C. J. (2020). Fertility, mortality, migration, and population scenarios for 195 countries and territories from 2017 to 2100: a forecasting analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet, 396(10258), 1285-1306.

Vuillemin, A., Boini, S., Bertrais, S., Tessier, S., Oppert, J. M., Hercberg, S., et al. (2005). Leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life. Preventive Medicine, 41(2), 562–569.

WHO, O. (2020). WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1-582.

Whoqol Group. (1997). Measuring quality of life. Geneva: The World Health Organization, 1-13.

Whoqol Group. (1998). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological medicine, 28(3), 551-558.

World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Available online: https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involvinghuman-subjects/ (accessed on 18 February 2024).

Yanardag, M., Şimşek, T. T., & Yanardag, F. (2021). Exploring the relationship of pain, balance, gait function, and quality of life in older adults with hip and knee pain. Pain Management Nursing, 22(4), 503-508.

Živković, D., Milanović, L., Đošić, A., Vulpe, A. M., Purenović-Ivanović, T., Zelenović, M., ... & Alexe, C. I. (2024). Physical Activity and Quality of Life among High School Teachers: A Closer Look. Social Sciences, 13(3), 172.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/FUPES240330005Z


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN   1451-740X (Print)

ISSN   2406-0496 (Online)