EFFECTS OF AN “NTC” EXERCISE PROGRAM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR SKILLS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

Ranko Rajović, Dragana Berić, Milovan Bratić, Miroslava Živković, Nenad Stojiljković

DOI Number
10.22190/FUPES1603315R
First page
315
Last page
329

Abstract

The problem of the motor development of preschool children is a highly current topic at a time when modern society is faced with a very low level of physical activity, which in turn assumes an epidemiological extent. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of NTC (Nikola Tesla Centre) Program of physical exercise on the development of preschool children’s motor skills. A longitudinal study was performed in state kindergartens with two parallel groups, one of which applied the NTC Program for a period of 6 months, while the second group applied the usual exercise program. The sample consisted of two groups of children aged 4 to 6. The children’s motor abilities were estimated by a battery of tests, BOT 2, comprising 14 subtests. On the basis of the applied statistical analyses it was determined that children in the experimental group achieved significant improvement on the motor skills test. Bearing in mind the fact that for the development of motor abilities the preschool age is a sensitive period, the application of the NTC exercise system at this age could significantly improve the motor skills and health status of children as well as lead to a better sensorimotor integration and a stimulating effect on cognitive development. Such a program would improve the initial state of the physical abilities of children through the development of their motor skills to the optimum level and have a positive impact on the creation of habits of regular physical exercise.

Keywords

NTC program, motor skills, preschool age

Full Text:

PDF

References

Aron, A. R., Poldrack, R. A., & Wise, S. P. (2009). Cognition: Basal ganglia role. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, 2, 1069–1077.

Arunović, D., Berković, L., Krsmanović, B., Madić, B., Matić, M., Radovanović, Đ., & Višnjić, D. (1992). Fizičko vaspitanje: teorijsko-metodičke osnove stručnog rada (Physical education: Theoretical and methodological bases of professional work). Niš: Narodne Novine. In Serbian

Berk, L. E. (2007). Development through the lifespan. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, MA.

Brookman, A., McDonald, S., McDonald, D., & Bishop, D. V. M. (2013). Fine motor deficits in reading disability and language impairment: Same or different? PeerJ, 1, e217.

Bruininks, R. H., & Bruininks, B. D. (2005). Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOT-2). Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessment.

Cameron, C., Brock, L., Murrah, W., Bell, L., Worzalla, S., Grissmer, D., & Morrison, F. (2012). Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement. Child Development, 83 (4), 1229–1244.

Caput-Joginica, R., Lončarić, D., & De Privitellio, S. (2009). Izvankurikularne sportske aktivnosti djece predškolske dobi: utjecaj na motorička postignuća i tjelesnu pismenost (Outside curricular sports activities in preschool children: impact on motor achievements and physical literacy). Hrvatski Športskomedicinski Vjesnik, 24 (2), 82–87. In Croatian

Castelli, D., Hillman, C., Buck, S., & Erwin, H. (2007). Physical fitness and academic achievement in third-and fifth-grade students. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29 (2), 239–252.

Chaddock-Heyman, L., Erickson, K. I., Holtrop, J. L., Voss, M. W., Pontifex, M. B., Raine, L. B., et al. (2014). Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 584 (DOI=10.3389/fnhum.2014.00584).

Chaddock, L., Erickson, K., Prakash, R., VanPatter, M., Voss, M., Pontifex, M., et al. (2010). Basal ganglia volume is associated with aerobic fitness in preadolescent children. Developmental Neuroscience, 32(3), 249–256.

Chaddock, L., Hillman, C., Pontifex, M., Johnson, C., Raine, L., & Kramer, A. (2012). Childhood aerobic fitness predicts cognitive performance one year later. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30 (5), 421–430.

Djedović, D., Rackov, J., & Stanojev, D. (2015). Walk to school as an integral part of daily phisical activity from the perspective of cognitive abilities development. International Conference Identifying the Gifted and How to Work with Them in Pre-school Institutions and Primary Schools, Book of Proceedings (pp. 225–228). Ljubljana: Faculty of Education University of Ljubljana.

Erickson, K., Hillman, C., & Kramer, A. (2015). Physical activity, brain, and cognition. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 4, 27–32.

Gopinath, B., Hardy, L., Baur, L., Burlutsky, G., & Mitchell, P. (2012). Physical activity and sedentary behaviors and health-related quality of life in adolescents. Pediatrics, 130 (1), 167–174.

Graham, G. (1992). Developmentally appropriate physical education for children. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 63 (6), 29–30. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/

1992.10606611

Grissmer, D., Grimm, K., Aiyer, S., Murrah, W., & Steel, J.S. (2010). Fine motor skills and early comprehension of the world: two new school readiness indicators. Developmental Psychology, 46 (5), 1008–1017.

Gruber, J., & Ismail, A. (1967). Integrated development, motor aptitude and intellectual performance. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Books.

Hillman, C., Pontifex, M., Raine, L., Castelli, D., Hall, E., & Kramer, A. (2009). The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children. Neuroscience, 159 (3), 1044–1054.

Hopkins, M., Davis, F., VanTieghem, M., Whalen, P., & Bucci, D. (2012). Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect. Neuroscience, 215, 59–68.

Hopkins, W., Marshall, S., Batterham, A., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, 41 (1), 3.

Ismail, A. H. (1967). The effects of a well-organized physical education programme on intellectual performance. Research in Physical Education, 1 (2), 31–38.

Kamenov, E. (2008). Vapitanje predškolske dece (Education of preschool children). Belgrade: Zavod za udžbenike. In Serbian

Koziol, L., Budding, D., Andreasen, N., D’Arrigo, S., Bulgheroni, S., Imamizu, H., & Pezzulo, G. (2014). Consensus paper: the cerebellum’s role in movement and cognition. The Cerebellum, 13 (1), 151–177.

Krajšek, M. (2015). Vpliv NTC metode na gibalne sposobnosti predšolskih otrok (The impact of the NTC method on motor abilities of preschool children). Koper: University of Primorska. In Slovenian

Krneta, Ž., Casals, C., Bala, G., Madić, D., Pavlović, S., & Drid, P. (2015). Can kinesiological activities change "pure" motor development in preschool children during one school year? Collegium Antropologicum, 39 (1), 35–40.

Lopes, V., Rodrigues, L., Maia, J., & Malina, R. (2011). Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21 (5), 663–669.

Malina, R., Bouchard, C., & Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity (2nd edition). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Petkovska, A., Rajović, I., & Rajović, R. (2015). Case study: the importance of early stimulation in prematurely born children with neurodevelopmental problems. International Conference Identifying the Gifted and How to Work with Them in Pre-school Institutions and Primary Schools, Book of proceedings (pp. 233–237). Ljubljana: Faculty of Education University of Ljubljana.

Piaget, J. (1953). The origin ofintelligence in the child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Plahutar, A., & Rajović, R. (2015). Primjena NTC programa u poticanju razvoja složenih motoričkih sposobnosti predškolske djece (The application of the NTC program to encourage the development of complex motor skills of preschool children). International Conference Identifying the Gifted and How to Work with Them in Pre-school Institutions and Primary Schools, Book of Proceedings (pp. 237–246). Ljubljana: Faculty of Education University of Ljubljana.

Rajović, R. (2010). NTC sistem učenja: metodički priručnik za vaspitače (NTC learning system: methodical manual for teachers). Vršac: College of Professional Studies in Education of Teachers Mihajlo Palov. In Serbian

Rajović, R. (2011). IQ deteta – briga roditelja, predškolski uzrast. Deo I (IQ of a child - Concern of parents, preschool age. Part I). Novi Sad: Abeceda. In Serbian

Rajović, R. (2016). Kako uspešno razvijati IQ deteta kroz igru – NTC sistem učenja (How to successfully develop a child's IQ by playing - NTC Learning System). Novi Sad: Smart production. In Serbian

Rajović, R., Stenovec, L., & Berić, D. (2015). NTC method implementation in the development of early motor abilities. In: S. Pantelić (Ed). XVIII Scientific Conference „FIS Communications 2015" in Physical Education, Sport and Recreation and III International Scientific Conference. Niš: Faculty of Sport and Physical Education.

Reilly, J., Kelly, L., Montgomery, C., Williamson, A., Fisher, A., McColl, J., & Grant, S. (2006). Physical activity to prevent obesity in young children: Cluster randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 333 (7577), 1041.

Scudder, M., Federmeier, K., Raine, L., Direito, A., Boyd, J., & Hillman, C. (2014). The association between aerobic fitness and language processing in children: Implications for academic achievement. Brain and Cognition, 87, 140–152.

Shenouda, L., Gabel, L., & Timmons, B. W. (2011). Preschooler focus-physical activity and motor skill development. Child Health & Exercise Medicine Program, 1, 1–2.

Sibley, B., & Etnier, J. (2003). The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15 (3), 243–256.

Smits-Engelsman, B., & Hill, E. (2012). The relationship between motor coordination and intelligence across the IQ range. Pediatrics, 130 (4), e950–e956.

Strong, W., Malina, R., Blimkie, C., Daniels, S., Dishman, R., Gutin, B., et al. (2005). Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. The Journal of Pediatrics, 146 (6), 732–737.

Taras, H. (2005). Physical activity and student performance at school. Journal of School Health, 75 (6), 214–218.

Tau, G., & Peterson, B. (2010). Normal development of brain circuits. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35 (1), 147–168.

Trajkovski, B., Tomac, Z., & Marić, Ž. (2014). Trend in motor skills development among preschool children as affected by a kinesiology program-longitudinal study. Sport Science, 7 (2), 22–27.

WHO. (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 894. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=AvnqOsqv9doC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Obesity:+preventing+and+managing+the+global+epidemic.+Report+of+a+WHO+Consultation&ots=6UL53m0P5M&sig=NwKJ6l8ZSuJREkXW0Ol1T3-bLd4

Živčić, K., Trajkovski-Višić, B., & Sentderdi, M. (2008). Changes in some motor abilities of preschool children (age four). Facta Universitatis, Series: Physical Education and Sport, 6 (1), 41–50.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN   1451-740X (Print)

ISSN   2406-0496 (Online)