Dobrica Živković, Slađan Karaleić, Ivana Anđelković, Nikola Aksović

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Daily physical activity is necessary for good quality of life among the elderly. It usually happens that with the advent of years, the extent of exercise decreases among the elderly, which could have negative effects on their health. It is very important to point out that if the health results allow it, it is never too late to begin with programmed training and physical exercise. If it is carried out under supervision, the possibility of injury is significantly reduced. The subject matter of this research are studies published from 2000 to 2016, which focused on the effects of physical activity on the balance of individuals over the age of 60. The aim of this review is the compilation of the appropriate literature on physical activity, as well as the clarification on whether there are effects of the physical activity on the balance of the elderly. This overview included 24 research papers. The results of this study confirm the positive effect of physical activity on the balance of the elderly. It has been proven that several weeks of a standardized exercise program, based on the increase in joint mobility, cardio-vascular exercise, strengthening the stability of the pelvic region, and proprioceptive exercise can improve balance skills and reduce the perception of pain. For elderly individuals with specific risk factors for falls, the recommendation is specific aquatic exercise programs which will improve balance and strengthen the lower extremities.


Physical activity, effects, balance, aquatic program, the elderly, balance tests

Full Text:



Appell, I.P.C., Pérez, V.R., Nascimento, M.D.M., & Coriolano, H.J.A. (2012). The Pilates method to improve body balance in the elderly. Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease, 3(3), 188-193.

Aslan, U.B., Cavlak, U., Yagci, N., & Akdag, B. (2008). Balance performance, aging and falling: a comparative study based on a Turkish sample. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 46(3), 283-292.

Baraúna, M.A., Barbosa, S.R.M., Canto, R.S.T., Silva, R.A.V., Silva, C.D.C., & Baraúna, K.M.P. (2004). Estudo do equilíbrioestático de idosos e suacorrelação com quedas. Revista Fisioterapia Brasil, 5(2), 136-141.

Buneta, O., & Didović, I. (2016). Utjecaj tjelesne aktivnosti na ravnotežu u starijoj životnoj dobi (Influence of physical activity on balance in elderly). Physiotherapia Croatica, 14 (Suppl. 1), 140-145. In Croatian

Carmeli, E., Kessel, S., Coleman, R., & Ayalon, M. (2002). Effects of a treadmill walking program on muscle strength and balance in elderly people with Down syndrome. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 57(2), M106-M110.

Daniel, F., Vale, R., Giani, T., Bacellar, S., & Dantas, E. (2010). Effects of a physical activity program on static balance and functional autonomy in elderly women. Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 3(1), 21-26.

Dehkordi, A.S., Sokhangoei, Y., & Azarbayjani, M.A. (2012). Impact of an aquatic exercising program on the balance of elderly males. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 3(8), 1678-1682.

Dohrn, M., Hagströmer, M., Hellénius, M. L., & Ståhle, A. (2017). Short-and long-term effects of balance training on physical activity in older adults with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 40(2), 102-111.

Ema, R., Saito, M., Ohki, S., Takayama, H., Yamada, Y., & Akagi, R. (2016). Association between rapid force production by the plantar flexors and balance performance in elderly men and women. Age, 38(5-6), 475-483.

Emilio, E.J.M.L., Hita-Contreras, F., Jiménez-Lara, P.M., Latorre-Román, P., & Martínez-Amat, A. (2014). The association of flexibility, balance, and lumbar strength with balance ability: Risk of falls in older adults. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 13(2), 349.

Gauchard, G.C., Gangloff, P., Jeandel, C., & Perrin, P.P. (2003). Influence of regular proprioceptive and bioenergetic physical activities on balance control in elderly women. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 58(9), M846-M850.

Iwakura, M., Okura, K., Shibata, K., Kawagoshi, A., Sugawara, K., Takahashi, H., & Shioya, T. (2016). Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 11, 1505.

Kawanabe, K., Kawashima, A., Sashimoto, I., Takeda, T., Sato, Y., & Iwamoto, J. (2007). Effect of whole-body vibration exercise and muscle strengthening, balance, and walking exercises on walking ability in the elderly. The Keio Journal of Medicine, 56(1), 28-33.

Khanjari, Y., & Ameri, E.A. (2015). Effects of 8 weeks water cure with aquatic devices on static balance and velocity of gait among elderly men. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 60, 137-142.

Kostić, R., Uzunović, S., Pantelić, S., & Đurašković, R. (2011). A comparative analysis of the indicators of the functional fitness of the elderly. Facta Universitatis Series Physical Education and Sport, 9(2), 161-171.

Lebar Bašić, A., Zorić, L., Ĉutura, M., Grizelj, A., & Krstiĉević, P. (2016). Važnost vježbiravnoteže za prevenciju pada kod osobastarije životne dobi (Importance of balance focused exercises in the prevention of falling in the elderly). Physiotherapia Croatica, 14 (Suppl. 1), 136-139. In Croatian

Madureira, M.M., Takayama, L., Gallinaro, A.L., Caparbo, V.F., Costa, R.A., & Pereira, R.M. (2007). Balance training program is highly effective in improving functional status and reducing the risk of falls in elderly women with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. Osteoporosis International, 18(4), 419-425.

Maitre, I., Symoneaux, R., & Sulmont-Rossé, C. (2015). Conducting sensory analysis tests among the elderly. Rapid sensory profiling techniques and related methods. Applications in new product development and consumer research, (p. 584). Elsevier Ltd., Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technologies and Nutrition

Mateos, M.V., Oriol, A., Martínez-López, J., Teruel, A.I., de la Guía, A.L., López, J., et al. (2014). Update of the GEM2005 trial comparing VMP/VTP as induction in elderly multiple myeloma patients: Do we still need alkylators?. Blood, DOI 10.1182/blood-2014-05-573733

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(4), 264-269.

Neira, S.R., Marques, A.P., Pérez, I.P., Cervantes, R.F., & Costa, J.V. (2017). Effectiveness of aquatic therapy vs land-based therapy for balance and pain in women with fibromyalgia: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 18(1), 22.

Paquette, M.R., Li, Y., Hoekstra, J., & Bravo, J. (2015). An 8-week reactive balance training program in older healthy adults: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 4(3), 263-269.

Patti, A., Bianco, A., Karsten, B., Alessandra Montalto, M., Battaglia, G., Bellafiore, M., et al. (2017). The effects of physical training without equipment on pain perception and balance in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Work, (Preprint), 1-8.

Perracini, M.R., & Ramos, L.R. (2002). Fatores associados a quedas em uma coorte de idosos residentes na comunidade (Fall related factors in a cohort of elderly community residents). Revista de Saúde Pública, 36, 709-716. In Portuguese

Perrin, P.P., Gauchard, G.C., Perrot, C., & Jeandel, C. (1999). Effects of physical and sporting activities on balance control in elderly people. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(2), 121-126.

Paquette, M.R., Li, Y., Hoekstra, J., & Bravo, J. (2015). An 8-week reactive balance training program in older healthy adults: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 4(3), 263-269.

Rubenstein, L.Z., Josephson, K.R., Trueblood, P.R., Loy, S., Harker, J.O., Pietruszka, F.M., et al. (2000). Effects of a group exercise program on strength, mobility, and falls among fall-prone elderly men. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55(6), M317-M321.

Sarvestani, H., Tabrizi, H. B., Abbasi, A., & Rahmanpourmoghaddam, J. (2012). The effect of ten weeks aquatic balance training and functional training on dynamic balance in inactive elder males. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 11(3), 296-303.

Sinaei, E., Kamali, F., Nematollahi, A., & Etminan, Z. (2017).Comparing the effects of balance training with and without cognitive tasks on the quality of life and balance performance in community-dwelling older adults: a single-blind randomized clinical trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Sciences and Research, 3(4), 91-96.

de Souza Moreira, B., Dos Anjos, D.M.D.C., Pereira, D.S., Sampaio, R.F., Pereira, L.S.M., Dias, R.C., et al. (2016). The geriatric depression scale and the timed up and go test predict fear of falling in communitydwelling elderly women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study. BMC Geriatrics, 16(1), 56.

Tainaka, K., Takizawa, T., Katamoto, S., & Aoki, J. (2009). Six‐year prospective study of physical fitness and incidence of disability among community‐dwelling Japanese elderly women. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 9(1), 21-28.

Tuna, H.D., Edeer, A.O., Malkoc, M., & Aksakoglu, G. (2009). Effect of age and physical activity level on functional fitness in older adults. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 6(2), 99.

Woo, J., Hong, A., Lau, E., & Lynn, H. (2007). A randomised controlled trial of Tai Chi and resistance exercise on bone health, muscle strength and balance in community-living elderly people. Age and Ageing, 36(3), 262-268.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN   1451-740X (Print)

ISSN   2406-0496 (Online)