Dušanka Đurović, Aleksandra Aleksić Veljković, Tanja Petrović

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of motivation in sport achievement and to describe the psychological aspect of motivation, as one of the most important psychological factors for success. Motivation theories give definitions of terms and previous knowledge of different authors, and the second part of this paper gives the most commonly used techniques: Goal settings, cognitive restructuring, and imagination, and how to apply them. When it comes to motivation in sports, some important concepts and some of the most important interventions for motivating athletes presented in this paper can be analyzed in the psychological training of athletes. Special attention given to the importance and the role of trainers in the process of motivating athletes emphasizes psychology as a key factor in sport achievement.


Psychology, Motivation, Theories, Athletes, Trainers, Success in Sport

Full Text:



Allen, M.S. (2010). On the temporal dynamics of causal attribution in competitive sport. International Review of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 3, 3-23.

Ames, C. (1984). Achievement attributions and self-instructions under competitive arid individualistic goal structures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(2), 478-487.

Abernethy, B., Hanrahan, S.J., Kippers, V., Mackinnon, L.T., & Pandy, M.G. (2012). The biophysical foundations of human movement, 3rd Ed. Human Kinetics.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hail.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Beck, J.S. (2011). Cognitive behavior therapy: Basics and beyond, 2nd Ed. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

Biddle, S., Wang, C., Kavussanu, M., & Spray, C. (2003). Correlates of achievement goal orientations in physical activity: a systematic review of research. European Journal of Sport Science, 3(5), 1-20.

Blanchard, C., & Vallerand, R.J (1996b). Perceptions of competence, self-efficacy and intrinsic interest as psychological mediators of the social-factors - contextual motivation relationship. Unpublished manuscript. Université du Québec à Montréal.

Chelladurai, P. (1993). Leadership. In R.N. Singer, M. Murphey, & L.K. Tennant (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology, (pp. 647–671). New York: Macmillan.

Coffee, P., & Rees, T. (2008). Main and interactive effects of controllability and generalizability attributions upon self-efficacy. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 9, 775-785.

Coffee, P., & Rees, T. (2009). The main and interactive effects of immediate and reflective attributions upon subsequent self-efficacy. European Journal of Sport Science, 9(1), 41-52.

Cox, H.R. (2005). Psihologija sporta (Psychology of sport). Zagreb: Naklada Slap. In Croatian

Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.

Deci, E.L., Nezlek, J., & Sheinman, L. (1981). Characteristics of the rewarder and intrinsic motivation of the rewarded. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40(1), 1-10.

Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1991). A motivational approach to the self: Integration in personality. In: R. Dientsbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on motivation, (pp. 237-288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Doran, G.T. (1981). There's a S.M.A.R.T. way to write management's goals and objectives. Management Review. 70 (11), 35-36.

Duda, J.L. (1987). Toward a developmental theory of children's motivation in sport. Journal of Sport Psychology, 9, 130-145.

Duda, J.L., & Nicholls, J.G. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in school-work and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 290-299.

Duda, J.L., & Treasure, D.C. (2006). Motivational processes and the facilitation of performance, persistence, and well-being in sport. In: J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance, 5th Ed., (pp. 57-81). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Dweck, C.S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040-1048.

Feltz, D.L, Short, S.E., & Sullivan, P.J. (2008). Self-efficacy in sport: Research and strategies for working with athletes, teams, and coaches. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Frederick, C.M. & Ryan, R.M. (1995). Self-determination in sport: A review using cognitive evaluation theory. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 5-23.

Gillet, N., Berjot, S., & Ciobance, L. (2009). A motivational model of performance in the sport domain. European Journal of Sport Science, 9, 151-158.

Gould, D. (1982). Sport in psychology in the 1980's: Status, direction and challenge in your Sports research. Journal of Sport Psychology 4, 203-218.

Gould D., Dieffenbach, K., & Moffett, A. (2002). Psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 14(3), 172-204.

Hodge, K., & Petlichkoff, L. (2000). Goal profiles in sport motivation: A cluster analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 22, 256-272.

Horn, T.S., & Carron, A.V. (1985). Compatibility in coach-athlete relationships. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, 137-149.

Karaoglanidis, D., Mouratidou, K., Kanellopoulos, P., Karamavrou, S., & Parisi, I. (2020). Perceived autonomy, motivation climate and intention for physical activity. A comparative study of students based on their gender and educational level. Facta Universitatis Series Physical Education and Sport, 18(1), 25-36.

Montuori, S., Curcio, G., Sorrentino, P., Belloni, L., Sorrentino, G., Foti, F., et al. (2018). Functional role of internal and external visual imagery: Preliminary evidences from pilates. Neural Plasticity,

Moritz, S.E., Feltz, D.L., Fahrbach, K.R., & Mack, D.E. (2000). The relation of self-efficacy measures to sport performance: A meta-analytic review. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(3), 280-294.

Newton, M., & Duda, J.L. (1999). The interaction of motivational climate, dispositional goal orientations, and perceived ability in predicting indices of motivation. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 30, 63-82

Nicholls, J.G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychology Review, 91(3), 328-346.

Pelletier, L., Tuson, K., & Green-Demers, I. (1998). Why are you doing things for the environment? The motivation toward the environment scale (MTES). Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 437-468.

Rees, T., Ingledew, D.K., & Hardy, L. (2005). Attribution in sport psychology: Seeking congruence between theory, research and practice. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 189-204.

Roberts, G.C., Treasure, D.C., & Kavussanu, M. (1996). Orthogonality of achievement goals and its relationship to beliefs about success and satisfaction in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 10, 398-408.

Schmidt, A.M., & DeShon, R.P. (2009). Prior performance and goal progress as moderators of the relationship between self-efficacy and performance. Human Performance, 22, 191-203.

Sun, H., Li, W., & Shen, B. (2017). Learning in physical education: A self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 36(3), 277-291.

Tod, D., & Hodge. K. (2001). Moral reasoning and achievement motivation in sport: A qualitative inquiry. Journal of Sport Behavior, 24, 307-327.

Vallerand, R.J., Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1987). Intrinsic motivation in sport. Exercise and Sport Sciences Review, 15, 389-425.

Vallerand, R.J., & Losier, G.F. (1999). An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11(1), 142-169.

Vallerand, R.J. (2007). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and physical activity. In: G. Tenenbaum, & R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sports psychology, (pp. 59-80). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Walling, M.D., Duda, J.L., & Chi, L. (1993). The perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire: Construct and predictive validity. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15(2), 172-183.

Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92(4), 548-573.

Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J.S. (2020). 35 years of research on students' subjective task values and motivation: A look back and a look forward. In: Advances in motivation science, Vol. 7, (pp. 161-198). Elsevier.

Wilson, P., & Rodgers, W. (2004). The relationship between perceived autonomy support, exercise regulations and behavioral intentions in women. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5(3), 229-242.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN   1451-740X (Print)

ISSN   2406-0496 (Online)