Javier Arturo Hall-López, Paulina Yesica Ochoa-Martínez

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The article compares the intensity of physical activity during recess in second and third grade schoolchildren according to gender and body fat percentage. Sixty-three second- and third-graders, classified with normal or high fat percentage, evaluated by bioelectric impedance (Inbody 720) participated in the study. During 27 periods of 30 minutes of recess, physical activity intensity and heart rate were evaluated with ActiGraph-GT9X accelerometers, the system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) was used to measure the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity index and the energy expenditure, perceived exertion was determined using the Pictorial Children's Effort Rating Table (PCERT). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) 2x2 showed significant differences between measurements according to the percentage of normal fat compared to high, for moderate physical activity (boys: 0.003, girls: 0.005), caloric expenditure (boys: 0.005, girls: 0.005), METS (boys: 0.003, girls: 0.001), and heart rate (boys: 0.005, girls: 0.005). Due to the increased risk of diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle, it is important to implement strategies during recess that involve more students with greater adiposity in physical activity.


Recess, Physical Activity, School, Gender, Body Fat

Full Text:



ActiGraph GT9X Link and bluetooth smart for research grade analysis, ActiGraph Inc. Pensacola, Florida, USA®) (Polar Inc, Finlandia ®),

American College of Sports Medicine. (2011). Complete Guide to Fitness & Health (1th Ed.):ACSM.

Borg, G. A. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 14(5),377-381.

Brooke, H. L., Corder, K., Atkin, A. J., & van Sluijs, E. M. (2014). A systematic literature review with meta-analyses of within-and between-day differences in objectively measured physical activity in school-aged children. Sports Medicine,44(10), 27-38. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0215-5

Cantó Alcaraz, R., & Ruiz Pérez, L. (2005). Comportamiento motor espontáneo en el patio de recreo escolar: Análisis de las diferencias por género en la ocupación del espacio durante el recreo escolar. (Spontaneous motor behaviour in school recess: Analysis of gender differences in the space use).RICYDE. Revista Internacional De Ciencias Del Deporte, 1(1), 28-45 Doi:doi:10.5232/ricyde2005.00103

Ceballos-López, N., Susinos-Rada, T., & García-Lastra, M. (2019). Espacios para jugar, para aprender. Espacios para relacionarse. Una experiencia de voz del alumnado en la escuela infantil (0-3 años). Estudios PedagóGicos, 44(3), 117-135.

Ekelund, U., Tomkinson, G., & Armstrong, N. (2011). What proportion of youth are physically active? Measurement issues, levels and recent time trends. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(11), 859-65. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090190.

Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición Medio Camino 2016 ENSANUT MC 2016 data revisited. (n.d.). Retrieved feb 15, 2020, from Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica; 2017. Website,

Ferrari, G. L., Matsudo, V., Barreira, T. V., Tudor-Locke, C. Katzmarzyk, P. T, & Fisberg, M. (2016). Correlates of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Brazilian Children. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 13(10), 1132-1145.doi:10.1123/jpah.2015-0666

Guinhouya, B. C., Samouda, H., & de Beaufort, C. (2013). Level of physical activity among children and adolescents in Europe: a review of physical activity assessed objectively by accelerometry. Public Health, 127(4), 301-11. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2013.01.020.

Hall-López, J. A., Ochoa-Martínez, P. Y., Zuñiga, R., Monreal, L. R., & Sáenz-López, P. (2017). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during recess and physical education among mexican elementary school students. Retos, 0(31), 137-139.

Hernández-Álvarez, J. L., del-Campo-Vecino, J., Martínez-de-Haro, V. & Moya-Morales. J.M. (2010). Percepción de esfuerzo en Educación Física y su relación con las directrices sobre actividad física. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 10(40), 609-619. Http://


Hernandez, B., Gortmaker, S. L., Laird, N. M., Colditz, G. A., Parra-Cabrera, S., y Peterson, K. E. (2000). [Validity and reproducibility of a questionnaire on physical activity and non-activity for school children in Mexico City]. Salud Publica de Mexico, 42(4):315-323.

Hollis, J. L., Williams, A. J., Sutherland, R., Campbell, E., Nathan, N., Wolfenden, L., & Wiggers, J. (2016). A systematic review and meta-analysis of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels in elementary school physical education lessons. Preventive Medicine, 86, 34-54. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.11.018

Honas, J. J., Washburn, R. A., Smith, B.K., Greene, J.L., Cook-Wiens, G., & Donnelly, J.E. (2008). The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) as a measure of energy expenditure during classroom-based physical activity. Pediatric Exercise Science,20(4), 439-445.


Jennings-Aburto, N., Nava, F., Bonvecchio, A., Safdie, M., Gonzalez-Casanova, I., Gust, T., & Rivera, J. (2009). Physical activity during the school day in public primary schools in Mexico City. Salud Pública de México, 51(2), 141-147.

Kim, J. (2012). Are physical education-related state policies and schools' physical education requirement related to children's physical activity and obesity? Journal of School Health, 82(6), 268-276.


Laguna, M., Ruiz, J. R., Lara, M. T., & Aznar, S. (2013). Recommended levels of physical activity to avoid adiposity in Spanish children. Pediatric Obesity, 8(1),62-9. doi: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00086.x.

Langford, R., Bonell, C., Jones, H., Pouliou, T., Murphy, S., Waters, E., Komro, K., Gibbs, L., Magnus, D., & Campbell, R. (2015). The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools framework: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 12:15,130.

Lonsdale, C., Rosenkranz. R. R., Peralta, L. R., Bennie, A., Fahey, P., & Lubans, D.R. (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in school physical education lessons. Preventive Medicine, 56(2), 152-61.doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.004

López-Fernández, I., Molina-Jodar, M., Garrido-González, F., Pascual-Martos, C., Chinchilla, J., & Carnero, E. (2017). Promoting physical activity at the school playground: A quasi-experimental intervention study. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 11(2), 319-328. doi:

López-Mojares, L. (2015). OBESIDAD Un problema no tan simple. [Obesity - Not such an easy problem]. RICYDE. Revista Internacional De Ciencias Del Deporte. 11(42), 305-309. Doi:10.5232/Ricyde.

McKenzie, T.,L. SOFIT. System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time. Overview and Training Manual. San Diego, CA: San Diego State University. 2002.

Mckenzie, T.L., Sallis, J.F., & Nader, P.R. (1992). Sofit-System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 11(2),195-205.

McKenzie, T. L., & van der Mars, H. (2015). Top 10 research questions related to assessing physical activity and its contexts using systematic observation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86(1), 13-29. doi:10.1080/02701367.2015.991264

Medina C., Barquera S., Katzmarzyk P. T., & Janssen I. (2015). Physical activity during recess among 13-14 year old Mexican girls. BMC Pediatrics, 15(17), 2-8. doi: 10.1186/s12887-015-0329-4.

Pérez Betancourt, A., & Betancourt Rodríguez, M. Z. (2019). El enfoque de género desde la formación docente y su relación con la ciencia, la tecnología y la sociedad. Revista Boletín Redipe, 8(3), 200-208.

Pérez-Trabazo, L., Barcala-Furelos, R., Peixoto-Pino, L., & Rico-Díaz, J. (2020). Physical activity in the recess of childhood education: A pilot study using Garmin Vivofit Jr wristbands. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 0, in press. doi:

Puri, K. S., Suresh, K. R., Gogtay, N. J., & Thatte, U. M. (2009). Declaration of Helsinki implications for stakeholders in research. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 55(2), 131-134. doi:10.4103/0022-3859.52846

Ridgers, N. D., Carter, L. M., Stratton, G., & McKenzie, T. L. (2011). Examining children's physical activity and play behaviors during school playtime over time. Health Education Research, 26(4), 586-595.

Secretaría de educación publica SEP data revisited. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2020, from the Lineamientos para la Organización y el Funcionamiento de las Escuelas de Tiempo Completo México; 2014. Website:

Sims, J., Scarborough, P., & Foster, C. (2015). The Effectiveness of Interventions on Sustained Childhood Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies. PLoS One, 10(7), e0132935. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0132935

Skala, K. A., Springer, A. E., Sharma, S. V., Hoelscher, D. M., & Kelder, S. H. (2012). Environmental characteristics and student physical activity in PE class: findings from two large urban areas of Texas. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 9(4), 481-491.doi:10.1123/jpah.9.4.481

Springer, A. E., Tanguturi, Y., Ranjit, N., Skala, K. A., & Kelder, S. H. (2013). Physical activity during recess in low-income third-grade Texas students. American Journal of Health Behavior, 37(3), 318-24. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.


Story, M., Nanney, M. S., & Schwartz, M. B. (2009). Schools and obesity prevention: creating school environments and policies to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Milbank Quarterly, 87(1),71-100. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00548.x

Stuart Rivero, C., López Gutiérrez, C., & Granado Mejías, A. (2018). Conocimientos formativos básicos para una Educación Física saludable. Estudios PedagóGicos, 38(1), 197-214. doi:10.4067/S0718-07052012000100012

The InBody 720 for research grade analysis, The InBody720 for research grade analysis, 2014, Biospace Co. Ltd.: Seoul, Korea.

Thomas, J.R., Nelson, J.K., & Silverman, S.J. Research Methods in Physical Activity (7th. Ed.). Human Kinetics. 2015. Champaign, Ilinois: Human Kinetics.

World health Organization WHO data revisited. (n.d.). Retrieved january 9, 2020, from the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, Physical Activity and Young People, Recommended levels of physical activity for children aged 5-17 years; website,

Yelling, M., Lamb, K.L., & Swaine, I.L. (2002). Validity of a Pictorial Perceived Exertion Scale for Effort Estimation and Effort Production During Stepping Exercise in Adolescent Children. European Physical Education Review, 8:157-175.

Zuñiga-Galaviz, U., Ramos-Jiménez, A., Cervantes-Borunda, M. S., & Hernández-Torres, R. S. (2016). Determinación de la intensidad y el gasto calórico de la actividad física durante el recreo escolar en niños y niñas de primaria. E-motion. Revista de Educación, Motricidad e Investigación, 6:19-27. https://dialnet.unirioja.




  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN   1451-740X (Print)

ISSN   2406-0496 (Online)