Michael Spittle, Sharna Spittle, Kelly Ruecker, Janet Young

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The purpose of this study was to explore the use of feedback and perceptions of the use of feedback by pre-service teachers in peer-teaching (instructing their peers in university classes) and practical placement settings (teaching in schools). Pre-service teachers specializing in primary physical education (PE) and one other teaching method (n=59) were observed while teaching a 15-minute lesson in a peer-teaching setting, with six participants also observed while teaching on practical placement. Participants retrospectively recalled the feedback they perceived providing during the lesson. Average feedback frequency rate was once every 56 seconds in peer-teaching and once every 86 seconds in practical placement. The most common type of feedback provided was verbal, non-skill related, positive feedback. Pre-service teachers perceived that they provided feedback significantly more often than they actually did (every 41 seconds versus every 56 seconds in peer-teaching). In peer-teaching, pre-service teachers perceived that they provided significantly more non-verbal, negative, knowledge of results, descriptive, and corrective types of feedback than they actually provided, whereas they perceived that they had provided significantly less verbal, non-skill related, positive, knowledge of performance, prescriptive, and terminal types of feedback than they actually provided (p<01). Pre-service teachers provided feedback frequently in peer-teaching and practical placement settings, but less often in practical placement than peer-teaching. Actual and perceived feedback frequencies differed significantly and suggest that pre-service teachers may not always be aware of how often and the type of feedback they are providing, highlighting that PE teacher education programs may need to work with pre-service teachers to develop self-awareness.


Knowledge of Performance, Knowledge of Results, Teacher Effectiveness, Physical Education, Motor Learning

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