Nikola Prvulović, Saša Pantelić, Ratko Stanković, Saša Bubanj

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Plyometric movement improves athletes’ muscular performance and is used in the plyometric training method as an unavoidable principle of explosive power and speed development training. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of plyometric programs on biomechanical parameters, including any differences between them. The study focused on three sports, junior age group athletes, and was based on a systematic analysis of previous results. Electronic databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, ERIC were searched for studies from 1999 to 2022. The results from 15 studies are summarized in detail. They show the positive effects of the plyometric programs on biomechanical parameters equally in the three sports. Training duration ranges from 20 to 90 min, and is directly related to the intensity of training and the number of jumps. Shorter sessions are of very high intensity with fewer jumps, while longer sessions are moderate and high intensity with fewer jumps (more than 138 to more than 2976). The most frequent training duration is 45 to 60 min, with high intensity and 600 to 900 different jumps. Greater improvements in explosive power and speed are seen in the parameters of sprint and jump tests. High intensity programs lasted from seven to 12 weeks, with a frequency of two to four times a week (СМЈ 6,2% to 16,9%, while for SJ 7,6% to 19,8%), while lower intensity programs lasted from three to six weeks (СМЈ 6,3% to 9,1%, and for SJ 6,6% to 8,9%). It is concluded that longer programs, of a moderate and high intensity and training sessions from 45 to 60 min, enable the best progress, regardless of sport.


Plyometrics, effects, biomechanics, track and field, basketball, volleyball

Full Text:



Arazi, H., & Asadi, A. (2011). The effect of aquatic and land plyometric training on strength, sprint, and balance in young basketball players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 6(1), 101-111.

Arede, J., Vaz, R., Franceschi, A., Gonzalo-Skok, O., & Leite, N. (2019). Effects of a combined strength and conditioning training program on physical abilities in adolescent male basketball players. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 59(8), 1298–1305. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.18.08961-2

Bobbert, M. F. (1990). Drop jumping as a training method for jumping ability. Sports Medicine, 9(1), 7-22.

Bouteraa, I., Negra, Y., Shephard, R. J., & Chelly, M. S. (2020). Effects of Combined Balance and Plyometric Training on Athletic Performance in Female Basketball Players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 34(7), 1967-1973. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002546

Castagna, C., Chaouachi, A., Rampinini, E., Chamari, K., & Impellizzeri, F. (2009). Aerobic and explosive power performance of elite italian regional-level basketball players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 23(7), 1982-1987. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b7f941

Chelly, M. S., Hermassi, S., & Shephard, R. J. (2015). Effects of In-Season Short-term Plyometric Training Program on Sprint and Jump Performance of Young Male Track Athletes. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 29(8), 2128–2136. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000860

Chu, D. A., & Meyer, G. C. (2013). Plyometrics. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Čoh, M. (2008). Biomechanical diagnostic methods in athletic training. Ljubljana: Institute of Kinesiology, Faculty of Sport.

Čoh, M., & Tomažin, K. (2005). Biodynamic characteristics of female sprinters. In D. Milanović, & F. Prot (Eds.), 4th International Scientific Conference on Kinesiology: Science and Profession-Challenge for the Future: Proceedings Book (pp. 441-444). Zagreb: University of Zagreb, Faculty of Kinesiology.

Davies, G., Riemann, B. L., & Manske, R. (2015). Current concepts of plyometric exercise. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 10(6), 760-786.

El-Ashker, S., Hassan, A., Taiar, R., & Tilp, M. (2019). Long jump training emphasizing plyometric exercises is more effective than traditional long jump training: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14(1), 215-224. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.141.18

Fontenay, B., Lebon, F., Champely, S., Argaud, S., Blache, Y., Collet, C., & Monteil, K. (2013). ACL injury risk factors decrease & jumping performance improvement in female basketball players: a prospective study. International Journal of Kinesiology & Sports Science, 1(2), 2201-6015.

García-de-Alcaraz, A., Ramírez-Campillo, R., Rivera-Rodríguez, M., & Romero-Moraleda, B. (2020). Analysis of jump load during a volleyball season in terms of player role. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 23(10), 973-978. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.03.002

Idrizovic, K., Gjinovci, B., Sekulic, D., Uljevic, O., João, P. V., Spasic, M., & Sattler, T. (2018). The Effects of 3-Month Skill-Based and Plyometric Conditioning on Fitness Parameters in Junior Female Volleyball Players. Pediatric exercise science, 30(3), 353–363. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2017-0178

Jakovljević, S., Karalejić, М., Pajić, Z., & Mandić, R. (2011). Ubrzanje i brzina promene smera i načina kretanja kvalitetnih košarkaša. Fizička kultura, 65(1), 16-23.

Komi P. V, & Nicol C. (2000). Shortening cycle of muscle function. In V. M. Zatsiorsky (Ed.), Biomechanics in Sport (pp. 87-102). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.

Komi, P. V. (1992). Stretch-shortening cycle. In P.V. Komi, (Ed.), Strength and Power in Sport (pp. 169-179). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.

Krističević, T., Krakan, I., & Baić, M. (2016). Effects of short high impact plyometric training on jumping performance in female volleyball players. Acta Kinesiologica, 10(1), 25-29.

Kurelić, N. (1954). Atletika. Beograd: Sportska knjiga.

Lehmann, F., & Voss, G. (1997). Innovationen für den Sprint und Sprung:“ziehende” 47. Gestaltung der Stützphasen. Leistungsport, 6, 20-5.

Lehnert, M., Hůlka, K., Malý, T., Fohler, J., & Zahálka, F. (2013). The effects of a 6 week plyometric training programme on explosive strength and agility in professional basketball players. Acta Gymnica, 43(4), 7-15.

Lyttle, A. D., Wilson, G. J., & Ostrowski, K. J. (1996). Enhancing performance: Maximal power versus combined weights and plyometrics training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 10, 173-179.

Maćkała, K., & Fostiak, M. (2015). Acute Effects of Plyometric Intervention-Performance Improvement and Related Changes in Sprinting Gait Variability. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 29(7), 1956-1965. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000853

Mackala, K., Fostiak, M., Schweyen, B., Osik, T., & Coch, M. (2019). Acute Effects of a Speed Training Program on Sprinting Step Kinematics and Performance. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(17), 3138. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173138

Manojlović, V., & Erčulj, F. (2013). Uticaj usmeravanja pažnje na postignuće kod vertikalnog skoka mladih košarkaša. Fizička Kultura, 67(1), 61-67.

Martel, G. F., Harmer, M. L., Logan, J. M., & Parker, C. B. (2005). Aquatic plyometric training increases vertical jump in female volleyball players. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(10), 1814-1819. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000184289.87574.60

Mero, A., & Komi, P. V. (1985). Effects of supramaximal velocity on biomechanical variables in sprinting. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1(3), 240-252.

Mero, A., Komi, P. V., & Gregor, R. J. (1992). Biomechanics of sprint running. Sports Medicine, 13(6), 376-392.

Meszler, B., & Váczi, M. (2019). Effects of short-term in-season plyometric training in adolescent female basketball players. Physiology international, 106(2), 168–179. https://doi.org/10.1556/2060.106.2019.14

Newton, R. U., Kraemer, W. J., & Häkkinen, K. (1999). Effects of ballistic training on preseason preparation of elite volleyball players. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 31(2), 323–330. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199902000-00017

Ramirez-Campillo, R., García-de-Alcaraz, A., Chaabene, H., Moran, J., Negra, Y., & Granacher, U. (2021). Effects of plyometric jump training on physical fitness in amateur and professional volleyball: a meta-analysis. Frontiers in Physiology, 12, 6364140. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.636140

Sheppard, J. M., Gabbett, T. J., & Stanganelli, L. C. (2009). An analysis of playing positions in elite men's volleyball: considerations for competition demands and physiologic characteristics. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 23(6), 1858–1866. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b45c6a

Siff, M. (2001). Biomechanical foundations of strength and power training. Biomechanics in Sport, 103-139.

Silva, A. F., Clemente, F. M., Lima, R., Nikolaidis, P. T., Rosemann, T., & Knechtle, B. (2019). The Effect of Plyometric Training in Volleyball Players: A Systematic Review. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(16), 2960. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162960

Usman, T., & Shenoy, K. B. (2015). Effects of lower body plyometric training on vertical jump performance and pulmonary function in male and female collegiate volleyball players. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 4(2), 9-19.

Verkhoshansky, Y., & Siff, M. C. (2009). Supertraining (6th ed). Rome: Verkhoshansky SSTM.

Wagner, H., Tilp, M., von Duvillard, S. P., & Mueller, E. (2009). Kinematic analysis of volleyball spike jump. International journal of sports medicine, 30(10), 760–765. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1224177

Zatsiorsky, V. (2008). Biomechanics in Sport: Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.

Željaskov, C. (2004). Kondicioni trening vrhunskih sportista: teorija, metodika i praksa. Beograd: Sportska Akademija.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/FUTLTE220614007P


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2560 – 4600 (Print)
ISSN 2560 – 4619 (Online)