Slađan Hristov, Goran Ristić, Amelija Djordjević

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The aim of this study is to develop a regional model of pharmaceutical waste management based on the principles of life cycle assessment. Its task is to minimize noticeable risks to human health and the environment, which are the consequence of an inadequate pharmaceutical waste management system. The research was grounded on basic eco-toxicological characteristics of ATC groups of pharmaceuticals. It is focused towards the development of a model for managing expired household medications, taking into account the fact that 90% of pharmaceutical waste is home-generated. The basis of the model comprises of multi-criteria optimization of pharmaceutical waste management process. The survey covered 2600 households in the area of the city of Nis, which is 5.24% of Serbia’s total population and 5.15% of the total number of households in Serbia. A special part of the questionnaire comprises the list of household medications according to the ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical) classification system. In the households in the study area, there were 8.21 medication packages per household, of which 12.22% (slightly more than one package per household) were medicines which had expired. Based on results obtained, the projected quantities of expired medications in Serbia will be 74 920 kg / year. The main feature of a developed regional model is to allow the application of methods for treatment of small quantities of pharmaceutical waste, as recommended by the WHO. The model grounded on ATC classification system is compatible with the classification based on environmental and health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals.


pharmaceutical waste, ATC classification, regional model 6

Full Text:



Bera M., Mihajlov A., Hodolic J., Agarski B., (2008) Analysis of situation of hazardous waste from medical institutions in Serbia and world, In Proceedings of ”Quality Festival 2008.” – 2nd International Quality Conference”, Kragujevac, Serbia, pp. 9-13,

Bound, J.P., Voulvoulis, N., (2005) Household Disposal of Pharmaceuticals as a Pathway for Aquatic Contamination in the United Kingdom. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(12): pp.1705-1711,

Serbian Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), (2013) Annual Report on the Environment in the Republic of Serbia for 2012, Belgrade, Serbia,

Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, (2014), (accessed 12/01/2016)

S. Bungau, C. Bungau, D.M. Tit: Studies on the last stage of product lifecycle management for a pharmaceutical product. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 16 (1), 56 (2015).

Castensson, S., (2008) Pharmaceutical Waste, in: Kümmerer. K. (ed.) Pharmaceuticals in the Environment. Sources. Fate, Effects and Risk, 3rd edition, Springer Publisher, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp. 489–500.

E. ZEBEK, M. SZWEJKOWSKA, M. RACZKOWSKI: Legal and organizational solutions of municipal waste management in Poland in compliance with waste directive 2008/98/EC. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 16 (2), 652 (2015).

ST. GHEORGHE, I. LUCACIU, I. PAUN, C. STOICA, E. STANESCU: Environmental exposure and effects of some micropollutants found in the Romanian surface waters. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 15 (3), 878 (2014).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN   0354-804X (Print)

ISSN   2406-0534 (Online)