Slavica Stevanović, Aleksandra Stanković

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Abstract. Air pollution has been shown to exacerbate respiratory diseases such as pneumonia. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between the longterm exposure to air pollution, as a risk factor, and the development of pneumonia in the population. The observed sample consisted of Niš citizens of different age groups who lived in area with high concentrations of air pollutants (investigated group) such as the Square of the October Revolution, as well as the citizens of Niška Banja (control group) which is the zone with the lowest concentration of air pollution. The investigation was carried out in the Public Health Institute in Niš, in the period between 2000 and 2012. A sample of 500 participants from Niš and Niška Banja was split into three age groups: up to 25, between 26 and 50, and above 51. Modified WHO, British MRC and American Thoracis Society questionnaires were run among the investigated and contol population sample group. A significance test was performed using a Mantel-Haenszel chi square (χ2) statistic. This test was used to check for a statistically significant difference between the prevalence of pneumonia between the investigated group and the control group across all age groups. The odds ratio (OR) and relative risk (RR) were determined. The statistical significance between measured concentrations in the air at observed measured spots was determined using the Student's t-test.

The highest value of the chi square test was determined in the age group up to 25 (RR = 8,00, OR = 8,87, p<0,05), in the group 26-50 years RR = 4,83, OR = 6,66, p<0,05 and in the group above 51 years RR = 1.11, OR = 1,15, p>0,05.

The obtained results prove that the prevalence of pneumonia is significantly higher in the exposed population than in the non-exposed, especially among younger than 25 years old.


Key words: air pollution, pneumonia

Full Text:



Guo Y, Tian S. Li, Z., Pan X., Zhang J., Williams G.,(2013), The burden of air pollution on years of life lost in Beijing, China, 2004-08: retrospective regression analysis of daily deaths, BMJ, 347(9), f7139, 2013.

Wong T.W., Lau T.S., Yu T.S., Neller A., Wong S.L., Tam W, Pang S. W., (1999), Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Hong Kong, Occup Environ Med, 56(10), 679-683, 1999.

Künzli N., Kaiser R., Medina S., Studnicka M., Chanel O., Filliger P., Herry M., Horak F Jr, Puybonnieux-Texier V., Quénel P., Schneider J., Seethaler R., Vergnaud J. C., Sommer H., (2000), Public-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: a European assessment, Lancet, 356(9232), 795-801, 2000.

Seaton A., MacNee W., Donaldson K., Godden D., (1995), Particulate air pollution and acute health effects, Lancet, 345(8943), 176-178, 1995.

Penna M.L., Duchiade M. P, (1990), Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, 25(1), 47-54, 1990.

Brunekreef B., Holgate S.T., (2002), Air pollution and healt, Lancet, 360(9341), 1233-1242, 2002.

Santus P., Russo A., Madonini E., Allegra L., Blasi F., Centanni S., Miadonna A, Gianfranco S., Chiraldi G., Amaducci, S. How air pollution influences clinical management of respiratory diseases. (2012), A case-crossover study in Milan. Respiratory Research,13(1):95, 2012.

Sofoluwe G.O,(1968)Smoke pollution in dwellings of infants with bronchopneumonia. Archives Environmental Health;16:670–2, 1968.

Neupane B., Jerrett M., Burnett R., Burnett T. R., Marrie T., Arain A., Loeb M., (2010), Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Risk of Hospitalization with Community-acquired Pneumonia in Older Adults, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 181(1), 47-53, 2010.

Serbian Regulations on emission limit values N054, 1992.

WHO, Methods for cohort studies of chronic air flow limitation, WHO Regional Publications, European Series N012, 1982.

Boezen H. M.. van der Zee S. C., Postma D. S., Vonk J. M., Gerritsen J., Hoek G., Brunekreef B., Rijcken B., Schouten J. P., (1999), Effects of ambient air pollution on upper and lower respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children, Lancet, 353(9156), 874-878, 1999.

Smith K. R., Samet J. M., Romieu I., Bruce N., Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute lower respiratory infections in children, Thorax, 55(6), 518-532, 2000.

Dherani M., Pope D., Mascarenhas M., Smith K. R., Weber M., Bruce N.,(2008), Indoor air pollution from unprocessed solid fuel use and pneumonia risk in children aged under five years: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Bulletin WHO, 86(5), 390-398C, 2008.

Smith K. R., McCracken J. P., Weber M. W., Hubbard A., Jenny A., Thompson L. M., Balmes J., Diaz A., Arana B., Bruce N.,(2011), Effect of reduction in household air pollution on childhood pneumonia in Guatemala (RESPIRE): a randomized controlled trial, The Lancet, 378( 9804), 1717-1726, 2011.

Kim P. E., Musher D. M., Glezen W. P., Barradas M.C.R., Nahm W.K, Wright C. E., (1996), Association of invasive pneumococcal disease with season, atmospheric conditions, air pollution, and the isolation of respiratory viruses. Clinical infecttious diseases, 22(1), 100-106, 1996.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN   0354-804X (Print)

ISSN   2406-0534 (Online)