Biljana Kocić, Aleksadra Stanković, Mirjana Aranđelović

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Case-control study has made, and will continue to make, important contributions to the environmental health field. Case-control studies are very common in environmental epidemiologic research as hypothesis-testing designs. The purpose of this article is to discuss the principles of a case-control study design and related methodological issues in environmental epidemiology. Case-control studies assessing environmental risk factors are pursued due to low cost, efficiency, disease latency, etc. Weaknesses do not negate strengths of the case-control design. Many examples illustrate the value of the case-control study as investigative approach in assessing environmental exposures and health outcomes. Recognizing that well-designed case-control studies can provide valid results is important, so that investigators can both critically appraise and appropriately design case-control studies to address important environmental research questions.


case-control study, environmental exposures, health outcomes

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