Darko Ivan Mihajlov, Momir Ratko Prascevic, Aleksandar Gajicki

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Environmental noise is an unavoidable phenomenon in urban environments. Even though efforts are continuously being made to reduce exposure to environmental noise, it still presents a problem, mostly due to rapid development of urbanization and transportation. Road, railway, and aircraft traffic are the main contributors to the overall environmental noise load. The ever-decreasing quiet zones in urban areas impact the health and well-being of urban population. Excessive exposure to noise can potentially cause a number of physical or psychological health effects, such as sleep disturbance, restricted communication, annoyance, cognitive impairment, and stress. The cardiovascular system can also be affected by prolonged exposure to traffic noise. Nevertheless, the precise impact of environmental noise has to be determined through risk assessment.

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