### EFFECTS OF ROTATION ON UNSTEADY FLUID FLOW AND FORCED CONVECTION IN THE ROTATING CURVED SQUARE DUCT WITH A SMALL CURVATURE

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#### Abstract

In recent years, the analysis of flow disposition in a curved duct *(*CD*)* has greatly attracted researchers because it is broadly used in engineering devices. In the present paper, unsteady flow characteristics of energy transfer *(*HT*)* in a rotating curved square duct *(*CSD*)* have been presented with the aid of spectral method. The key purpose of this study is to explore rotational effects and heat transfer *(*HT*)* of the duct. For this purpose, time-evolution calculation is performed over the Taylor number *(*-1500 ≤ Tr ≤ 1500*)* and other parameters are fixed; e.g., Dean number *(*Dn* *=* 1000),* Curvature* (*δ* = 0.015)* and Prandtl number *(*Pr* = 7.0,* for water*)*. Firstly, time-dependent behavior is accomplished for both clockwise and anticlockwise rotations. It is found that the flow instabilities are certainly governed by the change of Tr that has been justified by sketching phase spaces *(*PS*)*. To observe the flow features, velocities including axial flow *(*AF*),* secondary flow *(*SF*)* and temperature profiles are disclosed for both rotations; and it is elucidated that 2- to 6-vortex solutions are generated for physically realizable solutions. Axial flow *(*AF*)* shows that two maximum-velocity regimes are produced which induces secondary flow *(*SF*)*, and, consequently, a strong bonding between the AF and SF has been built up. It is observed that as the rotation is increased, the fluid is mixed considerably which boosts HT in the fluid. Finally, an assessment between the numerical and experimental data has been given, and a good agreement is observed.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/FUME210129041A

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