Cyrous Beyzaee, Sara Karimi Marvi

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Demand response (DR) could serve as an effective tool to further balance the electricity demand and supply in smart grids. It is also defined as the changes in normal electricity usage by end-use customers in response to pricing and incentive payments. Electric cars (EVs) are potentially distributed energy sources, which support the grid-to-vehicle (G2V) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) modes, and their participation in time-based (e.g., time of use) and incentive-based (e.g., regulation services) DR programs helps improve the stability and reduce the potential risks to the grid. Moreover, the smart scheduling of EV charging and discharging activities supports the high penetration of renewable energies with volatile energy generation. This article was focused on DR in the presence of EVs to assess the effects of transmission line congestion on a 33-bit grid. A random model from the standpoint of an independent system operator was used to manage the risk and participation of EVs in the DR of smart grids. The main risk factors were those caused by the uncertainties in renewable energies (e.g., wind and solar), imbalance between demand and renewable energy sources, and transmission line congestion. The effectiveness of the model in a 33-bit grid in response to various settings (e.g., penetration rate of EVs and risk level) was evaluated based on the transmission line congestion and system exploitation costs. According to the results, the use of services such as time-based DR programs was effective in the reduction of the electricity costs for independent system operators and aggregators. In addition, the results demonstrated that the participation of EVs in incentive-based DR programs with the park model was particularly effective in this regard.


Electric Vehicles, Smart Grid, V2G, G2V, GAMS, Loss Function, Demand Response

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