Mladen Živković, Nikola Stojanović, Amel Mekić, Anđela Đošić, Danijela Živković, Saša Pantelić

DOI Number
First page
Last page


This study aims to investigate the influence of muscle mass on jump height based on the stage of biological maturation. The total sample consisted of 71 male athletes with three years of minimum training experience. The athletes were divided into three groups based on biological maturation: PrePHV, MidPHV, and PostPHV. Vertical jump height was assessed using three tests: the countermovement jump (CMJ), the countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJwas), and the squat jump (SJ). The results of the interaction between muscle mass percentage (MM) and peak height velocity (PHV) indicate that the effect of MM on vertical jump variables is greater in the PrePHV and MidPHV groups compared to the PostPHV group. For the PrePHV and MidPHV groups, there was a significant increase in CMJ [b=.83, t(22)=3.77, p=.001 and b=.92, t(14)=3.70, p=.002, respectively] and SJ [b=1.11, t(22)=4.45, p< .001 and b=1.06, t(14)=3.51, p=.003, respectively] when muscle mass percentage increased by one unit, while no significant increments were apparent for the PostPHV group [b=0.71, t=1.98, p=.058 and b=0.48, t(28)=1.65, p=.111, respectively]. Additionally, when muscle mass percentage increased by one unit, the CMJwas performance significantly increased in the PrePHV [b=1.48, t(22)=4.68, p<.001], MidPHV [b=1.15, t(14)=4.59, p<.001], and PostPHV [b=.97, t(28)=2.52, p=.018] groups. This study substantiates muscle mass as an important predictor of explosive power, demonstrating a more pronounced impact in the PrePHV and MidPHV relative to the PostPHV group. The study points out the importance of considering biological maturation when understanding the relationship between muscle mass and explosive power performance in young athletes.


regression, moderation effect, PHV, explosive power

Full Text:



Almeida-Neto, P. F. D., de Medeiros, R. C. D. S. C., de Matos, D. G., Baxter-Jones, A. D., Aidar, F. J., de Assis, G. G., Dantes, P.M.S., & Cabral, B. G. D. A. T. (2021). Lean mass and biological maturation as predictors of muscle power and strength performance in young athletes. Plos one, 16(7), e0254552.

Avsiyevich, V., Plakhuta, G., & Fyodorov, A. (2016). The importance of biological age in the control system of training process of young men in powerlifting. Research journal of pharmaceutical, biological and chemical sciences, 7 (5), 945-954.

Bodzar EB, Zsaki A. Some Aspects of Secular Changes in Hungary Over the Twentieth Century. Coll Antropolo. 2002; 26(2): 477‒484.

Coelho-e-Silva, M. J., Figueiredo, A. J., Carvalho, H. M., & Malina, R. M. (2008). Functional capacities and sport-specific skills of 14- to 15-year-old male basketball players: Size and maturity effects. European Journal of Sport Science, 8(5), 277–285.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Lloyd, R.S., MacDonald, J., Myer, G.D., & Citrin, L. (2016). Youth resistance training: Past practices, new perspectives, and future directions. Pediatric Exercise Science, 28(2), 149-152.

Falk, B., & Eliakim, A. (2003). Resistance training, skeletal muscle and growth. Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews, 1(2), 120-126.

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A.-G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G* Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior research methods, 41(4), 1149-1160.

Haibach, P.S., Reid, G., & Collier, D.H. (2011). Motor learning and development. USA: Human Kinetics.

Hayes, A. F. (2022). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (Third edition ed.). New York: Guilford Publications.

Hara, M., Shibayama, A., Takeshita, D., Hay, D. C., & Fukashiro, S. (2008). A comparison of the mechanical effect of arm swing and countermovement on the lower extremities in vertical jumping. Human movement science, 27(4), 636-648.

Malina, R. M. (2003). Growth and maturity status of young soccer players. In Science and soccer (pp. 295-314). Routledge.

Malina, R., Bouchard, C., & Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, Maturation and Physical Activity. Champaign (Il), Human Kinetics.

Markovic, G., Dizdar, D., Jukic, I., & Cardinale, M. (2004). Reliability and factorial validity of squat and countermovement jump tests. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 18(3), 551-555.

Maynard, L. M., Wisemandle, W., Roche, A. F., Chumlea, W. C., Guo, S. S., & Siervogel, R. M. (2001). Childhood body composition in relation to body mass index. Pediatrics, 107(2), 344-350.

Meyers, R. W., Oliver, J. L., Hughes, M. G., Lloyd, R. S., & Cronin, J. B. (2017). Influence of age, maturity, and body size on the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in boys. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 31(4), 1009-1016.

Mirwald, R. L., Baxter-Jones, A. D., Bailey, D. A., & Beunen, G. P. (2002). An assessment of maturity from anthropometric measurements. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(4), 689-694.

Prieto, J. L., Barbería, E., Ortega, R., & Magaña, C. (2005). Evaluation of chronological age based on third molar development in the Spanish population. International journal of legal medicine, 119(6), 349-354.

Philippaerts, R.M., Vaeyens, R., Janssens, M., Van Renterghem, B., Matthys, D., Craen, R., & Malina, R.M. (2006). The relationship between peak height velocity and physical performance in youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(3), 221-230.

Rađa, A., Erceg, M., & Grgantov, Z. (2013). Maturity-Associated Differences in Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Youth Croatian Soccer Players. Indian journal of research, 2(8), 239-240.

Rađa, A., Erceg, M., & Milić, M. (2016). Differences in certain dimensions of anthropological status of young soccer players of different chronological, biological and training age. Sport science, 9(2), 60-63.

Ross, W. D., & Marfell-Jones, M. J. (1991). Kinanthropometry. In J.D. MacDougall, H.A. Wenger, & H.J. Geeny, Physiological testing of elite athlete (pp. 223-308). London: Human Kinetics.

Sherar, L. B., Cumming, S. P., Eisenmann, J. C., Baxter-Jones, A. D. G., & Malina, R. M. (2010). Adolescent biological maturity and physical activity: Biology meets behavior. Pediatic Exercise Science, 22, 332–349.

Silva, M. J., Carvalho, H. M., Gonçalves, C. E., Figueiredo, A. J., Elferink-Gemser, M. T., Philippaerts, R. M., & Malina, R. M. (2010). Growth, maturation, functional capacities and sport-specific skills in 12-13 year-old-basketball players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 50(2), 174-181.

Stojiljković, S., Djordjević-Nikić, M., & Macura, M. (2005). Influence of individual programmed exercises and nutrition on the body composition of recreational population. In N. Dikić, S. Živanić, S. Ostojić, Z. Tornjanski (Eds.). Abstract book: 10th Annual congress, European College of Sport Science (pp. 138). Belgrade: Sport Medicine Association of Serbia.

Te Wierike, S. C. M., De Jong, M. C., Tromp, E. J. Y., Vuijk, P. J., Lemmink, K. A. P. M., Malina, R. M., Elferink-Gemser, M. T., & Visscher, C. (2014). Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(4), 928–934.

Živković, M., Stojiljković, N., Trajković, N., Stojanović, N., Đošić, A., Antić, V., & Stanković, N. (2022). Speed, change of direction speed, and lower body power in young athletes and nonathletes according to maturity stage. Children, 9(2), 242.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN   1451-740X (Print)

ISSN   2406-0496 (Online)