Viola Mounir, Ereny Gobrial

DOI Number
First page
Last page


This study aims to compare the development of special education practices for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Egypt and England and gain an understanding of those factors that enhance or hinder special education in both countries. The study applies a comparative framework method. The findings provide a better understanding of special education practices and factors that enhanced or hindered the special education for ASD across the two countries. The findings reveal that special education practice in Egypt was hindered by low economic status, scarcity of cultural awareness, inadequate financial support, absence of education policy for ASD, and political orientation towards centralization. While, in England education policy, cultural awareness, economy, and scientific technology have been identified as important enhancing factors for special education. The study suggests some recommendations for developing special education for ASD in Egypt.


Autism spectrum disorders, Mothers, Special Education, Egypt, England

Full Text:



Aidarous, A. (2016). The Management of Special Education in the Canadian State of Ontario and the Australian State of Victoria and the Possibility of Benefiting from them in Egypt. Journal of Faculty of Education Benha University, 27(107), 47-192. http://search.mandumah.com/Record/789584

Al-Ghunaimi, H. (2002). The Ministry of Education's Achievements in the field of Special Education during the last five years. International Legislative Council no.70.

Al‐Youm, A.-M. (2017, April, 2). 800000 Egyptians Estimated have Autism: Social Solidarity Minister. https://www.egyptindependent.com/800000-egyptians-estimated-have-autism-social-solidarity-minister/

Bohl, D., Taylor, H., Scott A., Moyer J., and Hedden S. (2018). Sustainable Development Goals Report: Egypt 2030. Denver, Co and New York, NY: Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures and United Nations Development Programme.

British Medical Association (BMA). (2020, September 7). Autism Spectrum Disorders. https://www.bma.org.uk/what-we-do/population-health/child-health/autism-spectrum-disorder

Brown, R. (2005). Inclusive Education in Middle Eastern Cultures: the Challenge of Tradition. In Mitchel, D. (Ed.) Contextualizing inclusive education: evaluating old and new international perspectives, (pp. 253-278). London: Routledge.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020). Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders among Children Aged 8 Years: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 sites, United States, 2016. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 69(4), 1-12. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/ss/ss6904a1.htm?s_cid=ss6904a1_w

Chiarotti, F., and Venerosi, A. (2020). Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Worldwide Prevalence Estimates Since 2014. Brain Sci., 10, 274. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050274

Costandi, M. (2011). Arab Children with Autism are Beginning to Receive the Latest Education Methods DevelopediIn the West at New Specialized Institutes, but the Region also has Something to Offer Autism Researchers in the Rest of the World: Consanguineous Marriage. http://www.nature.com/nmiddleeast/2011/012345/full/nmiddleeast.2011.148.html (accessed August 22, 2019).

Courtenay, K. (2018). Special Edition: Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities in Europe. Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 12(3/4), 89-90. https://doi.org/10.1108/AMHID-07-2018-069

Department for Education (DoE). (2019, July 4). Special Educational Needs in England. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/special-educational-needs-in-england-january-2019

Department for Education, & Department of Health. (2015). Special educational needs and disability code of practice 0-25 years.


Department for Education. (2011, March 9). Support and aspiration: a new approach to special educational needs and disability. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/support-and-aspiration-a-new-approach-to-special-educational-needs-and-disability-consultation

Department for Education and Skills. (2001). Special Educational Needs (SEN) Code of Practice. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/273877/special_educational_needs_code_of_practice.pdf

Department for Education and Skills (DfES). (2003). Every Child Matters. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/272064/5860.pdf

Eleweke, C., and Rodda, M. (2002). The challenge of enhancing inclusive education in developing countries. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 6(2), 113-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110110067190

El Youm, A. (2017, August 6). The inclusion decree 252 regarding enrolling pupils with mild disabilities in mainstream school. https://ahramalyoum. com /2017/08/06

Esser, F., & Hanitzsch, T. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of comparative communication research. London: Routledge.

Fatehi, Y. (2016, April 2). Angels in our midst: autism in Egypt. Ahramonline. https://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContentP/1/198530/Egypt/ Angels-in-our-midst-Autism-in-Egypt.aspx

Ibrahim, N., El-abdeen, A., Zoromba, M., and Haika, A. (2020). Socio-economic and demographic factors associated with adaptive behaviour among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder in Egypt. Middle East Current Psychiatry, 27(38), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43045-020-00047-8.

Jenkins, R., Heshmat, A., Loza, N., Siekkonen, I., & Sorour, E. (2010). Mental health policy and development in Egypt – Integrating mental health into health sector reforms 2001-9. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 4(17), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-4-17

Jordan, R., Jones G., and Murray D. (1998). Educational intervention for children with autism: A literature review of recent and current research. Norwich: School of Education, University of Birmingham. https://dera.ioe.ac.uk/15770/1/RR77.pdf

Jovanović, D. & Ćirić, M. (2017). Methodological specifics of comparative research in education. Facta Universitatis, Series: Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education, 1(1), 33-42. https://doi.org/0.22190/FUTLTE170430004J

Gaad, E. (2004). Cross-cultural perspectives on the effect of cultural attitudes towards inclusion for children with intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Inclusive Education 8(3), 311-328. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/1360311042000194645

Ghoneim, S. (2014). Requirements for Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Public Education in Egypt. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 4(4), 192-199. https://doi.org/10.5901/jesr. 2014.v4n4p192

Gobrial, E., McAnelly, S., & Shannon, P. (2019). The Education of Children and young people with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Egypt. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(1), 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1111/bld.12250

Gobrial, E. (2018). The Lived experiences of mothers of children with the autism spectrum disorders in Egypt. Social Sciences, 7(8), 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080133

Gobrial, E. (2012). Mind the gap: the human rights of children with intellectual disabilities in Egypt. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(11), 1058-1064. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01650.x

House of Commons. (2006, June 21). Education and skills – Third report. UK Parliament. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmselect/cmeduski/478/47806.htm

International Monetary Fund. (2020, March 13). World Economic Outlook Database. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2020/March

Ismail, A. (2018). Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Private Schools in Egypt. In The European Conference on Education 2018: Official Conference Proceedings, (pp. 191-205). Japan: The International Academic Forum. http://papers.iafor.org/wp-content/uploads/conference-proceedings/ECE/ECE2018_proceedings.pdf

Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Ashbaugh, K., & Bradshaw, J. (2014). The importance of early identification and intervention for children with or at risk for autism spectrum disorders. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(1), 50-56. https://doi.org/10.3109/17549507.2013.861511

Long, R., Roberts, N., and Danechi, S. (Eds.) (2019). Special Educational Needs: support in England. England: House of Commons Library. https://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN07020/SN07020.pdf

Maciver, D., Hunter, C., Adamson, A., Grayson, Z., Forsyth, K., and McLeod, I. (2018). Supporting successful inclusive practices for learners with disabilities in high schools: a multisite, mixed method collective case study. Disability and Rehabilitation, 40(14), 1708-1717. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2017.1306586

Malgorzata, S., and El-Deabes, Y. (2012). The education system of Egypt: Contexts, frames and structures. Problems of education in the 21st century, 40, 129-144. http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/abstract.php?icid=988495

Meguid, N. (2014). Autism and Egypt: Historical Background. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Megahed N., Ginsburg M., Abdellah A., & Zohry A. (2012). The Quest For Educational Quality in Egypt. In Acedo C., Adams D., Popa S. (Eds.) Quality and Qualities. Comparative and International Education (A Diversity of Voices) (pp. 41-67), vol 16. Rotterdam: SensePublishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6091-951-0_3

Mendoza, R. L. (2010). The Economics of Autism in Egypt. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 2(1), 12-19. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajebasp.2010.12.19

Ministry of Education (MoE). (2014). National strategic plan for pre-university education in Egypt (2014-2030) Education Egypt National Project. UNESCO.


Mosad, A. (2018). Recent Trends of Educational Technology for Egypt. Journal of Research in Curriculum, Instruction and Educational Technology, 5(3), 187-204. https://journals.ekb.eg/article_54148_cb97ce5588080cf3222c82da363ebb0e.pdf

National Autistic Society (NAS). (2019, February 28). Autism and Education: Good practice guide. Supporting autistic children in your area. A guide for local authorities and school in England. London: AXCIS. https://www.autism.org.uk/~/media/nas/professionals/teachers/nas_education_good_practice_guide_web_final.ashx?la=en-gb

National Education Association. (2003). Status of the American Public-School Teacher 2000 – 2001. Washington, DC: Author.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). (2014, January 21). Autism, quality standard [QS51]. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs51/resources/autism-pdf-2098722137029

OECD. (2015). Schools for skills: a new learning agenda for Egypt. better policies for better lives. France: OECD. https://www.oecd.org/countries/egypt/Schools-for-skills-a-new-learning-agenda-for-Egypt.pdf

Parkin, E. (2016). Autism overview of UK: Policy and Services. Westminster; London: House of commons library.

Preece, D., and Jordan, R. (2010). Obtaining the views of children and young people with autism spectrum disorders about their experience of daily life and social care support. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(1), 10-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3156.2009.00548.x

Social Care, Local Government, Care Partnership Directorate, and Department of Health. (2014, April). Think Autism Fulfilling and Rewarding Lives, the strategy for adults with autism in England: an update. HM Government. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/299866/Autism_Strategy.pdf

Taha G.R.A., & Hussein H. (2014). Autism Spectrum Disorders in Developing Countries: Lessons from the Arab World. In: Patel V., Preedy V., Martin C. (Eds.) Comprehensive Guide to Autism (pp. 2509-2531). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4788-7_98

Tarek, E. I. O., Wafaa, M. A., & Nehad, S. B. (2017). Challenges and adjustments of mothers having children with autism. Alexandria Journal of Pediatrics, 30(3), 120-129. https://doi.org/10.4103/AJOP.AJOP_4_18

The Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor by Command of Her Majesty. (2007). The Governance of Britain: Presented to Parliament. UK: Crown.

UK Public General Acts (2001, May 11). Special Educational Needs and Disability Act. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2001/10/contents

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (1994). The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education. Salamanca. http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/SALAMA_E.PDF

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). (1989). The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. London: UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org.uk/Documents/

UNICEF. (2015, July). UNICEF Annual Report 2014. https://www.unicef.org/reports/unicef-annual-report-2014

UNICEF. (2018, June). UNICEF Annual Report 2017. https://www.unicef.org/reports/2017-annual-results-reports

Viljoen, K., & Aranda, C. (2019, April 2). Digital technologies supporting persons on the autism spectrum. GSMA. https://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/blog/digital-technologies-supporting-persons-on-the-autism-spectrum

Warnock, M. (1978). Report of the Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Handicapped Children and Young People. London: HMSO.

Warnock, M. (2005). Special educational needs: a new look. London: Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain. https://www.specialeducationalneeds.co.uk/warnock--sen.html

World Bank. (2007). Improving Our Quality, Equality, and Efficiency in the Education Sector: Fostering a Competent Generation of Youth. Education Sector Policy Note. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/FUTLTE210601006M


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2560 – 4600 (Print)
ISSN 2560 – 4619 (Online)