Miljan Jović, Ana Jovančević

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The aim of this research was to examine if there are some differences in a way optimists and pessimists react to unpleasant movie stimuli. The sample was convenient and it consisted of 42 (F=90%) students of psychology, from the Faculty of philosophy in Nish. Age range in the sample was from 18 to 20 (M=19, SD=.541). Instruments used in this research were: Life orientation test (LOT-R: Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994) and Brief Mood Introspection Scale (BMIS: Mayer, & Gaschke, 2013) in order to operationalize the mood of the respondents. The stimulus was a scene from the movie Sophie’s Choice, which aimed at inducing a negative affect. From the results we can conclude that the mood of the optimists, after watching movie stimuli, is corrputed, while the mood of the pesimists isn't.

So, in the further studies which examine emotion induction through movies, we suggest the  inclusion of optimism-pesimism as a control variable.

Also, for further studies we suggest the involvement of actors and testing how they react to film stimuli.


movies, unpleasant movie scenes, optimism-pessimism, positive affect, negative affect

Full Text:



Arnheim, R., (1993), Film as art, University of California Press, Berkley, Los Angeles, London.

Ausbrooks, D. P., Thomas, S. P., & Williams, R. L., (1995), “Relationships among selfefficacy, optimism, trait anger, and anger expression”, Health Values, 19: pp. 46-54.

Blankstein, K. R., Flett, G. L., & Koledin, S., (1991), “The brief College Student Hassles Scale: Development, validation and relation with pessimism”, Journal of College Student Development, 3: pp. 258-264.

Chang, E. C., (1998a), “Dispositional optimism and primary and secondary appraisal of a stressor: Controlling for confounding influences and relations to coping and psychological and physical adjustment”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74: pp. 1109-1120.

Chang, E. C., (1998b), “Does dispositional optimism moderate the relation between perceived stress and psychological well-being? A preliminary investigation”, Personality and Individual Differences, 25: pp. 233-240.

Davis, M. H., Hull, J. G., Young, R. D., & Warren, G. G., (1987), “Emotional Reactions to Dramatic Film Stimuli: The Influence of Cognitive and Emotional Empathy”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, Vol. 1: pp. 126-133.

Dirk, H., Naumann, E., Maier, S., Becker, G., Luerken, A. & Bartusse, D., (1999), “The assessment of afective reactivity using flms: Validity, reliability and sex differences”, Personality and Individual Differences, 26: pp. 627-639.

Engel, L. G., Frader, M., Barry, C., & Morrow, G., (1984), “Sadness evoked by a film on grief: An experimental study”, International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 14: pp. 1-30.

Fontaine, K. R., & Seal, A., (1997), “Optimism, social support, and premenstrual dysphoria”, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53: pp. 234-247.

Gross, J. J. & Levenson, R. W. (1995), “Emotion Elicitation Using Films”, Cognition and Emotion, 9: pp. 87-108.

Guarnera, S., & Williams, R. L., (1987), “Optimism and locus of control for health and affiliation among elderly adults”, Journal of Gerontology 43: pp. 594-595.

Janjić, T. & Goljović, N., (2018), “Music and Movie Clip in Positive and Negative Mood Induction: Group Experimental Situation Outcomes [abstract]” In: Todorović, J. & Đorić, S. (ed.) XIV Days of Applied Psychology, Book of Abstracts,September 2018, pp.108.

Khoo, S., & Bishop, G. D., (1997), “Stress and optimism: Relationships to coping and well-being”, Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 40: pp. 29-40.

Lawrence, J. S., (1998), “Defensive Pessimism and Optimism: The Bitter-Sweet Influence of Mood on Performance and Prefactual and Counterfactual Thinking”, Cognition and Emotion, 12, Vol. 5: pp. 635-665.

Long, B. C., Kahn, S. E., & Schutz, R. W.. (1992), “Causal model of stress and coping: Women in management”, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39: pp. 227-239.

Marshall, G. N., & Lang, E. L., (1990), “Optimism, self-mastery, and symptoms of depression in women professionals”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59: pp. 132-139.

Mewborn, C. R. & Rogers, R. W., (1979), “Effects of threatening and reassuring components of fear appeals on physiological and verbal measures of emotion and attitudes”, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 15, Vol. 3: pp. 242–253.

Nelson, E. S., Karr, K. A., & Coleman, P. K., (1995), “Relationships among daily hassles, optimism and reported physical symptoms”, Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 10: pp. 11-26.

O'Brien, W. H., Van Egeren, L., & Mumby, P. B. (1995). “Predicting health behaviors using measures of optimism and perceived risk”, Health Values 19, Vol. 1: pp. 21-28.

Philippot, P. (1993). “Inducing and assessing differentiated emotion-feeling states in the laboratory”, Cognition and Emotion 7: pp. 171-193.

Pillard, R. C., McNair, D. M., & Fisher, S., (1974), “Does marijuana enhance experimentally induced anxiety?”, Psychopharmacologia (Berl.), 40, pp. 205-210.

Rottenberg, J., Ray D. R., & Gross, J. J., (2007), “Emotion Elicitation Using Films”, In: Coan, J. A. & Allen, J. J. B. (ed.), The Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment, London, Oxford University Press, pp. 9-28.

Scheier, M. F., Weintraub, J. K., & Carver, C. S., (1986), “Coping with stress: Divergent strategies of optimists and pessimists”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, Vol. 6: pp. 1257-1264.

Schuller, I. S., (1995), “Cognitive style categorization width and anxiety”, Studia Psychologica, 37: pp. 142-145.

Sumi, K., Hofie, K., & Hayakawa, S., (1997), “Optimism, Type A behavior, and psychological well-being in Japanese women”, Psychological Reports, 80: pp. 43-48.

Sweetman, M. E., Munz, D. C., & Wheeler, R. J., (1993), “Optimism, hardiness, and explanatory style as predictors of general well-being among attorneys”, Social Indicators Research, 29, pp. 153-161.

Tannenbaum, P. H., & Gaer, E. P., (1965), “Mood changes as a function of stress of protagonist and degree of identification in a film-viewing situation”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, Vol. 4: pp. 612-616.

Van Rooijen, L., & Vlaander, G. P. J., (1984), “Dramatic induction of depressed mood”, Journal of Clinical Psychology 40: pp. 1318-1322.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/FUVAM1901041J


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2466-2887
Online ISSN: 2466-2895