Zivojin Stamenkovic, Dragan Svrkota

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Population growth and new forms of energy use have the effect that the energy demand grows year after year. The harmful influence of the use of fossil and nuclear fuels has influenced the intensive development of renewable energy sources (solar energy, small hydro power plants, wind energy, bio-renewable sources - biomass, geothermal energy). This paper gives an overview of the choice of design solution, technical parameters and the efficiency of small hydro power plants (SHPP) on small watercourses. Special attention in these considerations is dedicated to harmonization of selected solutions with natural resources and protection of ecosystems. In order to define the technical solution of one small HPP on a small watercourse, the following analyzes and studies need to be done: Hydrological study; Analysis of the available hydro potential; Pre-feasibility study of the chosen technical solution; Study on Environmental Impact Assessment; Analysis of the investment value of the elements of the system and the system as a whole; Analysis of annual fees and expenses. In analyzing the available hydro potential, it is necessary to examine in detail the influence of the minimum sustainable flow rate in the watercourse (biological minimum) both from the aspect of environmental protection and from the aspect of the techno-economic justification for SHPP construction. On the basis of the "cross-cutting" of the results of these analyzes, one can see the techno-economically justified solution for the construction of SHPP in line with the ecosystem. The goal of all previous analyzes is to select a technical solution that maximizes the use of hydro power potential and ensures optimum use of renewable energy sources, while paying special attention to ecology, environmental protection and sustainable development.


small hydro power plant, design solution, ecosystem protection

Full Text:



Jorge Morales Pedraza, Electrical Energy Generation in Europe ISBN 978-3-319-16082-5, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-16083-2, Springer, 2015

European Commission. RES Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable. Official Journal, L 140 05/06/2009; 2009a. p. 0016–0062.

European Commission. Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament an of the Council of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community. Official Journal, L 140 05/06/2009; 2009b. p. 0063–0087.

Szabó M, Jäger-Waldau A, Monforti-Ferrario F, Scarlat N, Bloem H, Quicheron M, et al. Technical assessment of the renewable energy action plans. JRC Reference reports. Ispra, Italy: European Commission, Directorate-General Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport; 2011. p. 104. EUR 24926 EN.

Banja M, Monforti-Ferrario F, Scarlat N. Review of technical assessment of national renewable energy action plans. JRC Scientific and policy reports. Ispra, Italy: European Commission, Directorate-General Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport; 2013. p. 103. EUR 25757 EN.

Small Hydropower Roadmap, Condensed research data for EU-27, ESHA 2012

K. Bódis, F.Monforti, S.Szabó, Could Europe have more mini hydro sites? A suitability analysis based on continentally harmonized geographical and hydrological data, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37, (2014) pp. 794–808.

Hydropower - Practice and Application Edited by Dr. Hossein Samadi-Boroujeni, H. Locher, A. Scanlon, Sustainable Hydropower – Issues and Approaches, ISBN 978-953-51-0164-2, InTech, 2012

Esser, L., (2012). A global overview. Water Power & Dam Construction, 64, pp. 18-18-20.

Egre, D. and Milewski, J.C. (2002) The diversity of hydropower projects. Energy Policy,30, 1225‐ 1230

Paish, O. (2002). Small hydropower: technology and current status. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 6: 537‐556

Vogal RM, Fennessey NM (1994) Flow duration curves. I. A new interpretation and confidence intervals. J Water Resour Plan Manag 120(4):485–504

Jowett, I.G. Instream flow methods: A comparison of approaches. River Res. Appl. 2015, 13, 115–127.

Wang, H.; Cao, L.; Xu, X.Y.; Han, L.J. An uncertain model for ecological water demand of river based on trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and its application. J. Hydraul. Eng. 2011, 39, 657–665.

Navarro, J.E.; Mccauley, D.J.; Blystra, A.R. Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) for Modelling Fish Habitat. J. Water Manag. Model. 1994. [CrossRef]

Gordon, N.D.; McMahon, T.A.; Finlayson, B.L. Stream hydrology: An introduction for ecologists. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 1993, 12, 101



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN   0354-804X (Print)

ISSN   2406-0534 (Online)