Željka Bojanić, Dušana Šakan, Jasmina Nedeljković

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The aim of this study was to explore the role of personality traits as predictors of perfectionism and to determine the existence of gender differences in the ways perfectionism is manifested. The study was conducted on 302 respondents aged 18 to 57. The Perfectionism Inventory scale (PI) used to measure perfectionism assesses lower-order perfectionism facets: Concern Over Mistakes, High Standards for Others, Need for Approval, Organization, Perceived Parental Pressure, Planfulness, Rumination, and Striving for Excellence; and three higher-order facets: Conscientious Perfectionism, Self-Evaluative Perfectionism and Perfectionism Inventory Composite. The Big Five Inventory (BFI), based on the Big Five model of personality, was used for the evaluation of personality traits: Extraversion, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness to experience. In determining gender differences, the t-test was used. Men scored higher than women on Organization, Planfulness, and Conscientious Perfectionism, whereas women scored higher than men on Perceived Parental Pressure. Three multiple regression analyses were conducted, one for each of the tested criterion variables, to test the significance of predictors of perfectionism. Predictor variables were the five dimensions of personality traits, and the criterion variables were the dimensions of higher-order perfectionism. All three tested models have statistical significance, and the sum of the predictors, made up of basic personality traits, accounts for one-fifth to one-third of the variance in the criterion measures of perfectionism. Almost all personality traits are shown to be significant predictors of perfectionism, with the exception of Conscientiousness, which is not a predictor of Self-Evaluative Perfectionism. Based on the results, it can be concluded that perfectionists generally keep to themselves, are less tolerant towards others, often worry, are sensitive to their own actions as well as those of others, but also open to new experiences. The obtained results contribute to a better understanding of the social adaptation and functioning of young adults, including young athletes.


mechanical characteristics, vertical jump, kinematic, accelerometer

Full Text:



Adler, A. (1956). Striving for superiority. In: H. Ansbacher i R. R. Ansbacher (Eds.), The individual psychology of Alfred Adler: A systematic presentation in selections from his writings (pp. 101-125). New York: Basic Books.

Blatt, S. J. (1995). The destructiveness of perfectionism: Implications for the treatment of depression. American Psychologist, 50(12), 1003-1020.

Burns, D. (1980). The perfectionist's script for self-defeat. Psychology Today, 14(11), 34-51.

Cattell, R. B., Cattell, A. K. S., Cattell, H. E. P. (1999). 16 personality factors – 16PF / 5. Edition. Manual. Beograd: Sinapsa editions.

Cattell, R. B. (1950). Personality: A systematic theoretical and factual study. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Costa, P., & McCrae, R. (1988). From catalog to classification: Murray’s needs and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 258-265.

Costa, P., Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R. R. (2001). Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 322-331.

Childs, J. H., & Stoeber, J. (2012). Do you want me to be perfect? Two longitudinal studies on socially prescribed perfectionism, stress and burnout in the workplace. An International Journal of Work, Health & Organisations, 26(4), 347-364.

Crocker, P. R., Gaudreau, P., Mosewich, A. D., & Kljajic, K. (2014). Perfectionism and the stress process in intercollegiate athletes: Examining the 2× 2 model of perfectionism in sport competition. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 45(4), 61-84.

Dunn, J. G., Dunn, J. C., & Syrotuik, D. G. (2002). Relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and goal orientations in sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24(4), 376-395.

Dunn, J. G., Gotwals, J. K., & Dunn, J. C. (2005). An examination of the domain specificity of perfectionism among intercollegiate student-athletes. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(6), 1439-1448.

Eysenck, H. J. (1990). Biological dimensions of personality. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and reaserch (pp. 244-276). New York: The Guilford Press.

Garner, D.M., Olmstead, M.P., & Polivy, J. (1983). Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 2(2), 15-34.

Gilman, R., & Ashby, J. S. (2003). A first study of perfectionism and multidimensional life satisfaction among adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 23(2), 218-235.

Gotwals, J. K. (2011). Perfectionism and burnout within intercollegiate sport: A person-oriented approach. The Sport Psychologist, 25(4), 489-510.

Gotwals, J. K., Dunn, J. G., & Wayment, H. A. (2003). An examination of perfectionism and self-esteem in intercollegiate athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 17.

Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., Blankstein, K. R., & O’Brien, S. (1991). Perfectionism and learned resouscefulness in depression and self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(1), 61-68.

Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., & Dyck, D. G. (1989). Self-oriented perfectionism, neuroticism and anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 10(7), 731-735.

Frost, R. O., Heimberg, R. G., Holt, C. S., Mattia, J. I., & Neubauer, A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 14(1), 119-126.

Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14(5), 449-468.

Fulgosi, A. (1997). Personality psychology – theory and research. Zagreb: School book.

Habke, A. M., & Flynn, C. A. (2002). Interpersonal aspects of trait perfectionism. In G. L. Flett & P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (p. 151-180). Washington, DC: APA.

Hall, H. K., Kerr, A. W., & Matthews, J. (1998). Precompetitive anxiety in sport: The contribution of achievement goals and perfectionism. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20(2), 194-217.

Hamachek, D. E. (1978). Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism. Psychology, 15, 27-33.

Haslam, N., Whelan, J., & Bastian, B. (2009). Big five traits mediate associations between values and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 40-42.

Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Dimensions of perfectionism in unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(1), 98-101.

Hill, R. W., Huelsman, T. J., Furr, R. M., Kibler, J., Vicente, B. B., & Kennedy, C. (2004). A new measure of perfectionism: The perfectionism inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82(1), 80-91.

Hodgson, R. J., & Rachman, S. (1977). Obsessional-compulsive complaints. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 389-395.

Horney, K. (1951). Neurosis and human growth: The struggle toward self-realization. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. L. (1991). The Big Five Inventory – Versions 4a and 54. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Personality and Social Research.

John, O. P., Naumann, L. P., & Soto, C. J. (2008). Paradigm Shift to the Integrative Big-Five Trait Taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Conceptual Issues. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 114-159). New York: Guilford Press.

John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The big five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.). Handbook of personality: Theory and research (str. 102–138). New York/London: The Guilford Press.

Khodarahimi, S. (2010). Perfectionism and Big-five model of personality in an Iranian example. International Journal of Psychology and Counselling, 2(4), 72-79.

Larsen, R. J., & Buss, D. M. (2008). Personality psychology. Jastrebarsko: Naklada Slap.

Madigan, D. J., Stoeber, J., & Passfield, L. (2016). Perfectionism and attitudes towards doping in junior athletes. Journal of sports sciences, 34(8), 700-706.

Navarez, J. C. (2011). Exploring the factors of perfectionism within the big-five personality model among Filipino college students. Educational Measurement and Evaluation Review, 2, 77-91.

Poropat, A. E. (2009). A meta-analysis of the Five-Factor Model of personality and academic performance. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 322–338.

Rasquinha, A., Dunn, J. G., & Dunn, J. C. (2014). Relationships between perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and competitive sport level. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(6), 659-667.

Rhéaume, J., Freeston, M. H., & Ladouceur, R. (1994). Perfectionism Questionnaire (PQ): English translation by J. Rhéaume, M. H. Freeston, and C. Bouchard. Unpublished manuscript, Université Laval, Montréal, Canada.

Rice, K. G., Ashby, J. S. i Slaney, R. B. (1998). Self-esteem as a mediator between perfectionism and depression: A structural equation analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(3), 304-314.

Roberts, B. W., O’Donnell, M., & Robins, R. W. (2004). Goal and personality trait development in emerging adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 541-555.

Roberts, B. W., & Robins, R.W. (2000). Broad dispositions, broad aspirations: The intersection of personality traits and major life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1284-1296.

Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., Schwartz, S. H., & Knafo, A. (2002). The big five personality factors and personal values. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 789-801.

Sapieja, K. M., Dunn, J. G., & Holt, N. L. (2011). Perfectionism and perceptions of parenting styles in male youth soccer. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(1), 20-39.

Slaney, R. B., & Ashby, J. S. (1996). Perfectionists: Study of a criterion group. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74, 393-398.

Slaney, R. B., Rice, K. G., & Ashby, J. S. (2002). A programmatic approach to measuring perfectionism: The Almost Perfect Scales. In G. L. Flett & P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 63-88). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Smederevac, S., & Mitrović, D. (2006). Personality – methods and models. Beograd: Center for Applied Psychology.

Stoeber, J., & Childs, J. H. (2010). The assessment of self-oriented make a difference. Journal of Personality assessment, 92(6), 577-585.

Stoeber, J., & Stoeber, F. S. (2009). Domains of perfectionism: Prevalence and relationships with perfectionism, gender, age, and satisfaction with life. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 530-535.

Stoeber, J. (2014). Perfectionism in sport and dance: A double-edged sword. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 45(4), 385-394.

Stoeber, J., Otto, K., Pescheck, E., Becker, C., & Stoll, O. (2007). Perfectionism and competitive anxiety in athletes: Differentiating striving for perfection and negative reactions to imperfection. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(6), 959-969.

Stoeber, J., & Rambow, A. (2007). Perfectionism in adolescent school students: Relations with motivation, achievement, and well-being. Personality and individual differences, 42(7), 1379-1389.

Stoll, O., Lau, A., & Stoeber, J. (2008). Perfectionism and performance in a new basketball training task: Does striving for perfection enhance or undermine performance? Psychology of sport and Exercise, 9(5), 620-629.

Stumpf, H., & Parker, W. D. (2000). A hierarchical structural analysis of perfectionism and its relation to other personality characteristics. Personality and individual differences, 28, 837-852.

Trogrlić, A. (2009). Relationships of cognitive style, cognitive abilities and conative properties. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Novi Sad: Faculty of Philosophy.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN   1451-740X (Print)

ISSN   2406-0496 (Online)