Dušan B. Perić, Milan Nešić, Branko Vujović

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Regular physical activity is one of the most important factors for maintaining health and quality of life. Mass recreational sports events is a good way to promote physical activity. In this research, the Sports Olympics of Vojvodian Workers (SOVW) was evaluated as an example. The main aim of the study is to analyze a recreational sports event as a mass activity significant for public health. The secondary aim is the development of a valid questionnaire which is applicable in practice. On a sample of 205 participants of the 12th SOVW, of different age and gender, an instrument was applied that showed a good metric. The factor analysis gave a stable one-factor model with a unique scale for assessing the quality of mass recreational sports events. It is a simple and understandable questionnaire, easily applicable in practice. The results of this study showed that the ratings of respondents of different age and gender did not differ significantly. The SOVW was evaluated as an event of medium quality (total score amounts to 66.19% of the maximum).


Physical Activity, Recreation of Employees, Quality Measurement, Mass Event

Full Text:



Atorkey, P., Owiredua, C. Mohammed, Z., & Gyimah, F.T. (2019). Physical activity and sedentary behaviour research in Ghana: A systematic review protocol. Global Epidemiology, 1, 1-4.


Backman, S. J., Velfkamp, C. (1995). Examination of the Relationship between service quality and user loyalty. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 13(2): 29-41. Available from https://js.sagamorepub.


Bartlett, M.S. (1954). A note on the multiplying factors for various chi square approximations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 16 (Series B), 296-298.

Cairns, B., Harris, M., Hutchison, R., & Tricker, M. (2004). Improving Performance? The Adoption and Implementation of Quality Systems in UK Nonprofits. Birmingham, UK: Centre for Voluntary Action Research, Aston Business School.

Campbell, D. (2002). Outcomes assessment and the paradox of nonprofit accountability. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 12(3), 243-259. doi: 10.1002/nml.12303

Caro, L.M., & Garcia, J.A.M. (2007). Consumer Satisfaction with a Periodic Reoccurring Sport Event and the Moderating Effect of Motivations. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 16(2), 70-81. Available from

Cronin, J.J., & Taylor, S.A. (1994). SERVPERF versus SERVQUAL: Reconciling performance-based and perceptions-minus-expectations measurement of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 58(1), 125-131.

Crompton, J.L., MacKay, K.J., & Fesenmaier, D.R. (1991). Identifying dimensions of service quality in public recreation. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 9, 15-28. Available from


Currie, M.E., & Ipson, M.N. (2002). Perceptions of quality services delivery in community recreation. In: Jackson, E. (ed.) (2002). Abstract of Papers Presented at the Tenth Canadian Congress on Leisure Research, Edmonton: Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, 152-155.

DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and applications (2nd ed.), vol. 26. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Derom, I., & Taks, M. (2011). Participants' experiences in two types of sporting events: A quest for evidence of the SL-CL continuum. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(3), 383-402.

Evans, J.R., & Lindsey, W.M. (2010). The management and control of quality. USA: South-Western Pub/Thomson.

Filo, K., Funk, D. C., & O'Brien, D. (2011). Examining motivation for charity sport event participation: a comparison of recreation-based and charity-based motives. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(4), 491-518.

Grönroos, Ch. (2002). An Applied Service Marketing Theory. European Journal of Marketing, 16(7), 30-41.

Horn, J.L. (1965). A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrica, 30, 179-185.

Hover, P., Dijk, B., Breedveld, K., Eekeren, F., & Slender, H. (2016). Creating social impact with sport events, p. 14. Utrecht: Mulier Institute, Utrecht University.

Howat, G., Murray, D., & Crilley, G. (1999). The relationships between service problems and perceptions of service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions of Australian public sports and leisure customers. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 17, 42-64. Available from


Hudson, S. (2008). Sport and adventure tourism, pp. 64-78. New York: Routledge.

Hung-Chih Yu, A., Morais, D., & Chick, G. (2005). Service Quality in Tourism: A case study of the 2001 study tour of Taiwan. In: J.G. Peden & R.M. Schuster (eds.), Proceedings of the 2005 northeastern recreation research symposium, pp. 318-325. New York: Bolton Landing.

Jae Ko, Y., & Pastore, L.D. (2004). Current Issues and Conceptualizations of Service Quality in the Recreation Sport Industry. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 13, 158-166.

Kandola, Stubbs, & Koyanagi (2020). Physical multimorbidity and sedentary behavior in older adults: Findings from the Irish longitudinal study on ageing (TILDA). Maturitas, 134, 1-7.


Kattel, R. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1(2), 245-276.

Kaiser, H. (1970). A second generation Little Jify. Psychometrika, 35, 401-415.

Kaiser, H. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31-36.

Kaplan, R.S. (2001). Strategic Performance Measurement and Management in Nonprofit Organisations. Nonprofit management & Leadership, 11(3), 353-370. Available from


Kim, D. & Kim, S. Y. (1995). QUESQ: An instrument for assessing the service quality of sport centers in Korea. Journal of Sport Management, 9, 208–220.

Ko, Y.J., & Pastore, D. (2004). Current Issues and Conceptualizations of Service Quality in the Recreation Sport Industry. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 13, 158-166. Available from


Ko, J.Y., & Pastore, D. (2007) An instrument to assess customer perceptions of service quality and satisfaction in campus recreation programs. Recreational Sports Journal, 31, 34-42.

Ko, Y.J., Zhang, J., Cattani, K., & Pastore, D. (2011). Assessment of event quality in major spectator sports. Managing Service Quality, 21(3), 304-322.

Lee, J.H., Duck Kim, H., Ko, Y., & Sagas, M. (2011). The influence of service quality on satisfaction and intention: A gender segmentation strategy. Sport Management Review, 14(1), 54-63.

Lynch, P., & Dibben, M. (2015). Exploring motivations for adventure recreation events: a New Zealand study. Annals of Leisure Research, 19(1), 80-97.

McDonald, M., Sutton, W., & Milne, G. (1995). Measuring service quality in professional team sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 4, 9-16. Available from

Murray, D., & Howat, G. (2002). The relationship among service quality, value, satisfaction, and future intentions of customers at an Australian sports and leisure centre. Sport Management Review, 5, 25-43.

Nešić, M., Dačić, D. & Srdić, V. (2014). Users’ Perception of a Sports Service System in a Karate Club. Sport Science and Helath, 4(2), 121-130.

Nešić, M., Nešić, B., & Perić, D. (2016). The valorization of recreative program of walking by the side of participants - middle aged women. TIMS.Acta, 10(1).

Nešić, M., Ahmetović, Z., Srdić, V., & Badrić, M. (2017). Evaluation of the HEDUQUAL Scale Intended for the Assessment of Students’ Perceptions of Service Quality in Higher Education Institutions in Vojvodina. Croatian Journal of Education, 19(3), 867-889.

Okayasu, I., Nofawa, H., Casper, M.J., & Morais, B.D. (2016). Recreational sports event participants’ attitudes and satisfaction: cross-cultural comparisons between runners in Japan and the USA. Management Sport and Leisure, 21(3), 164-180.

Packianathan, C., & Kyungro, C. (2000). Targets and Standards of Quality in Sport Services. Sport Management Review, 3(1), 1-22.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12-40. Available from https://search.

Parasuraman, A., Berry, L.L., & Zeithaml, V.A. (1991). Refinement and reassessment of the SERVQUAL scale. Journal of Retailing, 67(4), 420-450. Available from


Perić, D., Nešić, M., Romanov, R., Marković, J., Mišković, I., Jezdimirović, T. & Stupar, D. (2016). Participant's Quality Perception and Motives for Attending Marathon Events in Natural Areas. International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation and Tourism, 23(a), 1-21.

Perić, D., Nešić, M., Dačić, D., Ahmetović, Z., & Srdić, V. (2017). The quality of sports services in karate club based on users’ perception. Archives of Budo, 13(1), 131-137. Available from file:///C:/Users/Du%C5%A1an%20Peri%


Radichi, E. (2013). Tourism and Sport: Strategic Synergies to Enhance the Sustainable Development of a Local Context. Physical Culture and Sport: Studies and Research, 57(1), 44-57.

Rauter, S. (2014). Mass Sports Events as a Way of Life (differences between the participants in a cycling and a running event). Kinesiologica Slovenica, 20(1), 5-15. Available from


Segoro, W. (2013). The Influence of Perceived Service Quality, Mooring Factor, and Relationship Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 81, 306-310.

Shonk, D.J., Carr, J.W., & De Michele, P. (2020). Service Quality and satisfaction within campus recreation: the moderating role of identification. Recreational Sports Journal, 34(1), 9-23.

Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. (7th ed.), pp. 33-38. Boston: Pearson Education.

Tzetzis, G., Alexandris, K., & Kapsampeli, S. (2014). Predicting visitors’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions from service quality in the context of a small-scale outdoor sport event. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 5(1), 4-21.

Uddin, R., Lee, E.Y, Khan, S.R., Tremmblay, M.S., & Khan, A. (2020). Clustering of lifestyle risk factors for non-communicable diseases in 304,779 adolescents from 89 countries: A global perspective. Preventive Medicine, 131, 1-8.

Vargo, S., & Morgan, F.W. (2005). Services in Society and Academic Thought: An Historical Analysis. Journal of Macromarketing, 25(1), 42-53.

Wagner, KH, & Brath, H. (2012). A global view on the development of non-communicable diseases. Preventive Medicine, 54, 38-41.

Wäsche, H., & Woll, A. (2010). Regional sport tourism networks: a conceptual framework. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15(3), 191-214.

Watkins, M.W. (2000). Monte Carlo PCA for parallel analysis [computer software]. State College, PA: Ed and Psych Associates.

WHO (2018). World Health Statistics 2018: Monitoring health for the SDGs. Available from:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN   1451-740X (Print)

ISSN   2406-0496 (Online)